Decarbonization: Alternative Fuels for India’s road transportation sector 

Growing populations and rapid economic growth influence India’s rising energy consumption. India’s third-highest consumer of final energy is the road transport industry, which is virtually entirely dependent on petroleum oil. Nearly one-fifth of the nation’s import expenditure—more than four out of every five percent of crude petroleum—comes from imports. In 2018, India contributed around 7% of the world’s energy-related CO2 emissions, of which the transport industry was responsible for 13%. Alternative fuels have been researching in India for approximately 20 years to decarbonize the road transportation industry and solve energy security, efficiency, and air quality difficulties. 

Electricity and biofuels can provide significant prospects for the near-term decarbonization of the road transportation industry. Hydrogen and compressed natural gas both have the potential to be essential players in this area throughout the short, medium, and long term.

Options and current situation for transportation’s alternative fuels

Alternative fuels, including biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel), CNG, methanol, electricity, hydrogen, etc., have been considering for development and use in India among the various choices. The Government of India (GoI)’s “Auto Fuel Policy, 2003” made several recommendations, including the use of CNG/LPG in cities with higher vehicular penetration, accelerating the development of battery electric, hydrogen, and fuel cell vehicles (FCV), and developing sustainable biofuel production technologies based on locally available resources as well as vehicles for their use.

Recent changes in the power mix of India, the evolution of shared mobility solutions that maximize the use of expensive transportation assets, and improvements in battery chemistries have all contributed to the favourable environment for the growth and adoption of electric mobility. The following sections contain information on the governmental actions implemented, particularly in India, to promote the development of various alternative fuels for use in road transportation and the advancements made compared to international successes.


Ethanol and biodiesel are the two main liquid biofuels produced and used worldwide. While corn, sugar cane, and other crops are primarily using to make ethanol, animal and vegetable oils, including used cooking oil (UCO) from kitchens, are using to make biodiesel. In addition, the production of hydro-treated vegetable oil (HVO) and hydro-treated esters and fatty acids (HEFA) from the same feedstocks used to make biodiesel for use as a diesel alternative is growing. Additionally, it anticipates that between 2023 and 2025, the average global biofuel production will increase to 182 BL.

Development in India

The GoI mandated the usage of exclusively non-edible oilseeds for biodiesel production to stop the gap between the demand and supply for edible vegetable oil in the nation from getting even more comprehensive. By adding ” additional states to the program in 2006, the requirement for the provision of E5 was expanding to a broader geographic spread of the nation. Due to the scarcity of ethanol, India experienced difficulties with its biofuel initiative, much like many other nations worldwide. India’s National Policy on Biofuels, enacted in 2009, permits the purchase of ethanol made from non-food feedstocks such as molasses, cellulose, and lignocellulose materials. By the end of 2017, the plan is to achieve the aim of 20% ethanol and biodiesel admixing in gasoline and diesel, respectively.

Compressed natural gas

In its compressed form, known as CNG is another form of alternative fuel. Natural gas mainly consists of methane, may be utilized in three-wheeled auto-rickshaws, vehicles, and municipal buses, and CNG pressure might be increased to 250 bar. The usage of CNG as an automotive fuel has advanced, and it is currently prevalent in many nations. CNG provides advantages over other fossil fuels in decreased CO, CO2, NOx, and particulate matter 

 emissions. Its widespread availability, compatibility with spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI) engines, and inexpensive operating costs influence its acceptance. 

As of December 31, 2019, over 28.54 million CNG-powered cars were operating worldwide, refuelling at 33,383 stations in more than 85 nations. According to the highest percentage of CNG-fueled automobiles, China, Iran, India, Pakistan, and Argentina are the top five nations. 

Development in India

The adoption of a sizable number of CNG cars in India was possible by the local capability to make NG vehicles. The GoI’s favourable policy framework has also made it easier for people to acquire CNG automobiles. As of March 31, 2020, these initiatives have resulted in a combined stock of around 3.38 million CNG-fueled cars and the construction of 2207 CNG refuelling stations throughout 20 Indian states and four centrally managed territories. During 2019–20, these vehicles accounted for about 6.7% of all NG consumption. By 2030, 33 million CNG-powered cars and 10,000 CNG refuelling stations will be in India. Including imported LNG (33,680 MMSCM), India consumed 63,932 M metric standard cubic meters (MMSCM) of NG in 2019–20 

Compressed Biogas

The anaerobic digestion of various wastes/biomass resources from agricultural, dairy, municipal sewage treatment facilities, solid waste from cities, etc., can result in the purified and compressed form of compact biogas (CBG). CBG is another alternative fuel for achieving dercarbonisation. It then mixes with NG or CNG or used as a CNG or LNG replacement to lessen reliance on imports. Regarding composition, energy content, and other characteristics, CBG is comparable to commercial NG and has a methane proportion above 0.95. India can produce 62 MTA of CBG from a variety of resources. 5,000 CBG system expects to install nationwide in stages by 2025 under the GoI SATAT program, which began in 2018. These systema anticipates to produce 15 MTA of CBG or around about 30% of NG consumption of 48.65 MTA in the country during 2019–20

Liquefied Petroleum Gas(LPG)

LPG, a propane and butane combination commonly referred to as “autogas” in some countries, may also used as a transportation fuel when not mixed. It is a fuel with comparatively low carbon emissions. Auto LPG is the world’s third most used automobile fuel, powering more than 27 million cars. Additionally, it is cost-effective for the user and extends engine life while lowering maintenance costs. With roughly 71,000 dispensing outlets, over 70 countries is using auto LPG.

Development in India

The Auto Fuel Policy, 2003 of the GoI proposed, among other measures, the use of these gaseous fuels in cities with a more significant population of automobiles after realizing the advantages associated with alternative fuels such as CNG and LPG. Additionally, in 2014, the GoI released the Auto Fuel Vision and Policy 2025, which provided a roadmap for a swift transition to the new emission standards specified in BS-IV throughout India.

Despite offering the user economic benefits and being more environmentally friendly than gasoline and diesel, auto LPG has only achieved limited success in India due to unfavourable policy frameworks for its expansion. Additionally, few auto LPG vehicles are made in Indi. And retrofitting auto LPG kits is preferred because this market is unregulated. 


Resources, including coal, NG, and biomass that can create syngas, is using to make methanol. Methanol is an efficient fuel that emits less NOx and PM pollutants than gasoline and no SOx emissions because it contains no Sulphur. For usage as an automobile fuel, it then combines with gas or used as a complete replacement. Methanol, however, is more corrosive than gasoline, may require significant infrastructure improvements for its storage and delivery, and is extremely dangerous to people if eaten. 2019 saw an estimated 98.281 MT of methanol produced globally. In which 19.777 MT was utilizing as an alternative fuel for blending with gasoline and combustion, manufacturing of biodiesel and dimethyl ether, and in fuel cells.

Development in India

India is still in the early stages of methanol production; in 2018–19, domestic production was just approximately 0.27 MT, compared to the installed production capacity of 0.47 MT. In 2019, it imported 2.3 MT of methanol. The majority of Indian methanol production now relies on imported NG. Thus, the country may use its substantial coal deposits to produce methanol to blend with gasoline or completely replace it. The ability to produce methanol might be increased using biomass, stranded gas, and high-ash coal from India. Coal India Ltd. is now putting up a factory using coal to produce 0.676 MT of methanol. In Assam, a trial program for cooking using canister-based methanol started in 2018. 

Electricity for transportation

The two primary elements of the modern energy system are electricity and liquid fossil fuels, with electricity supplying very dense energy globally for various uses, including lighting, propulsion, refrigeration, communication, and computation. Electricity is a very efficient and clean energy source after the generating stage. Over 90% of electricity is using efficiently in motors to produce rotary motion for various everyday applications. Because of these characteristics, electricity is a crucial energy vector for movement.

The introduction of ICE-based cars and a lack of adequate infrastructure for power distribution and battery recharging, including the time required for recharging, were some of the causes that led to the end of the first golden era of EVs. In the past ten years, interest in EVs has once again risen due to concerns about vehicular emissions, climate change, and energy security being brought to the attention of policymakers and automakers. While the switch to electric mobility is still in its early stages in some nations, the adoption of EVs is accelerating in some of the world’s largest markets for personal vehicles due to falling battery prices and expanding EV charging infrastructure. Of different kinds, including cars, buses, taxis and shared vehicles, light commercial vehicles (LCV), two/three-wheelers and heavy-duty vehicles with short-range requirements such as urban deliveries.

Development in India

When Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd hired to build an “Electra van” with 18 seats for usage in Delhi and other major cities, the introduction of electric mobility in India officially began in the early 1980s. About 200 of these vehicles developed and put on display. Eddy Current Control (India) Ltd. created the first electric vehicle in India in 1993. After that, electric three-wheelers/rickshaws, e-bikes, and a tiny electric automobile (Reva) get developed and used in 1996.

The National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NMEPP) 2020 was created in 2012, and the Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises, Government of India, launched the first phase of Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles (FAMHEV) in 2015 [80], [81]. With a budget of US$ 140.7 million, Phase-I of FAMHEV (also known as FAME-I in India) carried out from April 2015 to March 2019. Following that, FAMHEV-II (or FAME – II) launched in April 2019 for three years with a total allocation of US$ 135.86 million to promote e-2 Wheelers, e-3 Wheelers, e-4 Wheelers, 4W vigorous hybrids, and e-buses as well as the establishment of charging infrastructure. The amount of financial support for EVs depends on the battery’s capacity.


In light of its potential to play a significant role in decarbonizing the transportation, industrial, and household sectors and thereby offering solutions to climate change-related issues with which the entire world has been grappling in recent years, hydrogen has been attracting a lot of attention from policymakers, environmentalists, researchers, automobile companies, and others. The most prevalent and lightest element in nature is hydrogen. Among all available fuels, hydrogen has the highest gravimetric energy content (120.7 MJ/kg), 2.7 times more calorific than gasoline. Additionally, it is environmentally friendly because it only emits water vapour when it is being used. Hydrogen has a lengthy history of use in energy-related applications.

Since 1975, the demand for pure hydrogen increased more than three times and predicted to reach more than 70 MT in 2018. Because it can lower GHG emissions, provide energy independence, and enhance the ambient air quality in the areas that choose to use it. Whereas Hydrogen is seen as an appealing energy source for vehicular applications.

Development in India

Since about 30 years ago, the Government of India has supported a wide range of R&D activities in the nation, realizing the significance of hydrogen for supplying the energy needs of the transportation sector and for distributed power generation. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), GoI, created a National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap (NHER) in 2006, intending to accelerate the research and commercialization of hydrogen-based technologies in India. NHER focused on projects based on public-private partnerships to help with resource creation.

The primary goals were to outline the development, testing, and deployment of technologies for using hydrogen energy in the transportation and power-generating sectors and to make it possible to build the necessary infrastructure throughout the nation. It entailed concentrating on the growth of various links throughout the complete hydrogen energy value chain, from its production to its availability for ultimate use and resolving concerns linked to its safety and standards. Only a few sets of two-wheelers, three-wheelers, catalytic combustion cooking systems, small power generating systems, hydrogen internal combustion engines (HICE), and FC buses have been developing. These have only undergone limited field testing. Activities for developing hydrogen-fuelled vehicles (HFV), including hydrogen-compressed natural gas (H-CNG) and hydrogen-diesel dual fuel vehicles, got momentum in India after NHER came into existence.

The Heat is On: The Impact of Global Warming

We are all acutely aware of the current state of climate change. Wind patterns, temperature, air pressure, and humidity influence our climate. Several climates worldwide include dry, mild, tropical, and more. The seasons there are determined by the temperature. Since we are living creatures, our environment impacts all aspects of our existence. To live a regular life, we thus need a steady and healthy one. However, this trend is being disturbed by global warming.

How does global warming work?

Procedures that cause the earth’s temperature to grow consistently and continuously. A grave issue will put all living things in serious peril. Likewise, there are several causes for this occurrence.

Increased carbon dioxide levels and greenhouse gases are significant contributors to it. Living things will soon meet their demise if we do not take action to solve this issue. Furthermore, we must be aware of its adverse effects to act quickly to remedy it.

Everyone must be made aware of their role in the rising global warming. To rescue the world and all of its inhabitants, it is crucial that we discover a solution that will enable us to address this problem as soon as possible.

Impact of global warming

Global warming indicators

By now, we must all be aware that the earth’s temperature has risen by one degree Celsius. Even though it appears to be a modest number presently, the effects it causes are enormous. Increasing this temperature by even one degree Celsius requires significant energy, and our climate system would need to be force-fed with this additional energy.

A constant increase in the earth’s temperature is called global warming. The generation of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and methane is a significant factor in this increase. Several scientific arguments show that the earth’s temperature has risen, especially since the 1950s. The world’s climate system has warmed due to human activity during the past several decades, and it is expected that the global surface temperature will likely increase much more in the twenty-first century. This temperature increase is negatively impacting the earth’s life. Here is a thorough examination of the effects of global warming.

Effects on Climate

The precipitation pattern has changed due to global warming in several parts of the world. As a result, some areas are suffering flooding while others are experiencing draught-like conditions. In this manner, the moist parts become wetter while the dry ones get dryer. Along with other environmental changes, an increase in temperature is also causing storms, cyclones, heat waves, and wildfires. Global warming is causing extreme weather in many areas of the world, and the issue is only predicted to worsen. 

 Effects on Sea

Over the 20th century, the sea level has increased worldwide. This increase in sea level can be attributed to two main factors. Two things have happened: first, there was a thermal expansion brought on by the warming of the ocean, and second, there has been an increase in the melting of land-based ice. According to predictions, the sea level will increase significantly shortly. Living in coastal and low-lying areas is seriously threatened by rising sea levels.

 Effects environment

Because of global warming, the earth’s entire environment has suffered. This temperature increase worsens air pollution by increasing ground level ozone, which is created when smoke from industries, automobiles, and other sources reacts with heat and sunshine to generate ozone. Increased air pollution has brought numerous health issues, and things are worsening every day.

Effects of Life on earth

Life on Earth has been severely harmed by the rise in temperature, unpredictable climatic conditions, and air and water pollution. Numerous lives have been lost due to regular floods, droughts, and cyclones, and the rising pollution levels contribute to several health issues. 

Like humans, many other animals and plants cannot adapt to the shifting weather. They are suffering from the adverse effects of the quick changes in the land and water meteorological conditions. The number of animals and plants going extinct has increased. According to studies, the growing amount of pollution and climatic changes are to blame for the extinction of several species of birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, and amphibians.

Agriculture is Affected

The unpredictable rainfall pattern brought on by global warming has most severely impacted agriculture. While specific locations frequently experience draught-like conditions, others often see severe rain and flooding. This is harming the crops as well as the residents of those places. Crops are suffering, and agricultural fields are losing their fertility.

Sea Level Will Rise 1-8 feet by 2100

Since accurate records have been kept since 1880, the sea level has increased by around 8 inches (0.2 meters) worldwide. If carbon emissions continue at their current rate, by the year 2100, experts predict they will have risen by at least another foot (0.3 meters) and perhaps even by as much as 8 feet (2.4 meters). The expansion of seawater as it heats and the additional water from melting land ice are the two main causes of sea level rise.

Even small sea level changes can cause increased flooding because storm surges and high tides combine with sea level rise and land sinking along coastlines to amplify flooding in some regions. Sea level rise will continue past 2100 because the ocean takes a long time to respond to warmer conditions at Earth’s surface fully. As ocean waters continue to warm, sea levels will continue to rise.

Changes in the climate will persist throughout. 

It is predicted that the global climate will continue to warm throughout this century and beyond. The quantity of heat-trapping gases generated by people and how susceptible the Earth’s climate is to those emissions determine the extent of climate change and the severity of repercussions.

Hurricanes Will Become Stronger and More Intense

The intensity of North Atlantic hurricanes and the frequency of the strongest hurricanes have increased since the early 1980s. Scientists project that hurricane-associated storm intensity and rainfall rates will increase as the climate continues to warm.

Longer Wildfire Season

Warming temperatures have made the wildfire season longer and more severe in the West, and deepening drought in the region has increased the risk of fires. Scientists estimate that human-caused climate change has already doubled the area of forest burned in recent decades. By around 2050, the amount of land consumed by wildfires in Western states is projected to increase by two to six times. Wildfires are projected to increase by about 30% in rainy regions like the Southeast.

Globally, fire weather seasons have lengthened. Drought remains the dominant driver of fire emissions, but recently there has been increased fire activity in some tropical and temperate regions due to warmer temperatures that increase vegetation flammability. The northern boreal zone (Earth’s northernmost forests) near the Arctic is also experiencing more prominent and frequent fires, which may increase under a warmer climate.

More fires and a more extended fire season are causing an additional health hazard of wildfire smoke, which affects tens of millions of people in the United States. Meanwhile, the costs of fighting wildfires have risen 11-fold over the past 30 years, adding a financial burden on top of the public health risk.

More heat waves and droughts 

Heat waves (prolonged periods of exceptionally hot weather) and droughts in the Southwest are expected to intensify, making cold waves less severe and more common. The temperature is expected to rise throughout the year. 

Modifications in Rainfall Patterns 

The United States has unequal effects of climate change on precipitation (rain and snow), with some areas experiencing greater rainfall and floods while others are facing drought. Scientists predict that the northern United States will get more winter and spring precipitation this century than the Southwest.

Future climate projections over the U.S. suggest the recent trend toward increased heavy precipitation events will continue. This means that while it may rain less frequently in some regions (such as the Southwest) when it does rain, heavy downpours will be more common.

The growing season (and the frost-free season) will extend.

 Since the 1980s, the length of the frost-free season and the accompanying growing season have increased, with the western United States experiencing the largest increases. The lengthening of the growing season will continue across the country, impacting ecosystems and agriculture.

The length of the growing season is predicted to expand by a month or more throughout the majority of the United States by the end of the century if heat-trapping gas emissions continue to increase at the current rates, with slightly lower increases in the northern Great Plains. The frost-free season might last eight weeks in the western United States, particularly in high-elevation and coastal regions. If we decrease our emissions of gases that trap heat, the rises will be noticeably less. 

Arctic Is Very Likely to Become Ice-Free

Sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean is expected to continue decreasing. The Arctic Ocean will likely become ice-free in late summer if current projections hold; this change will likely occur before mid-century.


The issue of global warming is quite severe and has disastrous consequences. Immediate action must be taken to reduce carbon emissions to mitigate the effects of global warming. This is feasible if every person puts forth a little effort for the cause.

Decarbonizing the Power System

Goal of decarbonizing power system

The energy industry is experiencing a worldwide change. Renewables’ costs have plummeted significantly over the last decade—solar power up to 80% and wind power by roughly 40%—making them economically competitive with traditional fuels like coal and natural gas in most global markets. As a result, renewables are rapidly expanding: in 2018, they accounted for the vast majority of new power-generation capacity. In most markets, they are now the most cost-effective way to expand marginal capacity. Furthermore, for decarbonizing the power system renewables are crucial to any country’s goal to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

However, neither the sun’s nor the wind’s direction can changed. As a result, unlike baseload power facilities powered by coal, gas, or nuclear energy, wind and solar output cannot be continuously matched to demand. That raises a problem. Municipalities, states, countries, and utility companies all need affordable, dependable power. Many people have also established objectives to decarbonizing their electricity systems. How do they manage both?

For considerable amounts of renewable energy to integrate, flexibility (the capacity to control the erratic nature of non-dispatchable electricity) such as wind and solar power is essential. The real-time synchronization of supply and demand may achieved in various ways. For instance, gas and coal power plants may shift output up or down to balance wind and solar energy output variations, and production may balance geographically via transmission lines. Demand-side management programs and well-designed incentives can persuade people to change their consumption patterns.

Image showing decarbonization

Decarbonizing the electricity system to between 50 and 60 per cent by 2040

In most markets, achieving 50 to 60 percent decarbonization with little to no additional expenditure is possible beyond what is dictated by just rational economic behaviour. Decarbonization is frequently the least expensive choice since solar, wind, and storage costs—three crucial components in all deep-decarbonization scenarios—have fallen so far and so quickly.

Midrange storage (four to eight hours) works well with the sun’s 24-hour cycle. “Solar-plus storage” refers to the ability to store energy during the day. And release it at night to ensure a consistent supply of electricity . In reality, wind and solar energy frequently work in tandem since the former is stronger at night and during the winter, when the latter is. Therefore, solar and wind resources markets are better equipped to handle intermittency.

The performance of the electricity system normally wouldn’t be significantly impact reaching this degree of decarbonization. We project that 2 to 5 percent of the electricity generated would curtailed, and almost all of it undergoes various utilizations. Individual fossil-fuel plants’ utilization levels, or the proportion of time a plant produces power, would likewise not considerably changed, remaining at 50 to 60 percent. However, some assets will decommissioned and replaced when more affordable renewables come online, and no new transmission would likely required. Simply put, few changes would need to be made to the electricity system to reach a 50–60% decarbonizing goal.

Decarbonizing the electricity system to between 80 to 90 per cent by 2040

It will often cost more, take longer, and need more market-specific initiatives to reach 80 to 90 percent decarbonization. Even if there is no need for new technologies, storage would have to utilized for longer periods, and demand may need to controlled more strictly. This may done by actively managing building heating, cooling, and industrial load shifting. Additional transmission interconnections may require for certain markets to combine renewable resources and share baseload resources over a greater geographic region.

The system would seem considerably different from how it does now at this level of decarbonization. Because so much renewable energy is producinig to fulfil demand during reduced output, we expect a 7 to 10% curtailment. Fossil-fuel plants are used less frequently (20–35%) as renewable energy sources gain popularity. However, many are maintaining on standby to supply demand when renewable energy sources cannot. The expenses of decarbonization at the 80 to 90 percent level vary greatly. There may be a slight decrease in system expenses (1 to 2 percent annually) in markets with higher than average power costs, and there may be gains in other, less expensive markets.

Decarbonizing the electricity system to between 100 per cent by 2040


 Landfill gas and biomethane are examples of net-zero-carbon renewable biofuels. However, due to their high cost and finite availability, they can often only partially contribute to the solution. 


 stands for carbon capture, usage, and storage. With CCUS, greenhouse gas emissions from burning fossil fuels have applications in various processes like better oil recovery, or safely stored in deep rock formations. Although costly, CCUS is effective. Finding and implementing technology advancements and establishing scale efficiencies will be necessary to lower the cost. Additionally, as CCUS cannot collect every carbon molecule, other technologies will still require to achieve complete decarbonization.


It stands for bioenergy carbon capture and storage. According to a method known as BECCS, carbon-neutral biomass, such as wood pellets and agricultural waste, undergo burning for fuel while the CO2 emissions that occur either captured or stored. The end outcome is negative emissions, or removing GHGs from the atmosphere. Biomass can be ramped up, but it is unclear how much because the technology is still relatively new. One benefit is the ability to convert old coal facilities into BECCS plants, which lowers capital costs and uses already-existing linkages. 


Power to gas to power. Using surplus electricity, P2G2P technology creates hydrogen that may stored in the gas network and then transformed back into power. The “clean gas” produced by P2G2P technology permits storage for weeks or even months. However, it is both costly and ineffective. The initial ten megawatts of generated power undergo tr6ansformation into usable power for consumption, roughly three megawatts remain. However, the flexibility offered by P2G2P technology might go a long way toward incorporating sporadic renewables if there is a demand for clean gas beyond the power industry.


DAC remove CO2 from air. It is another low-emission technology that might utilize to reduce the final few percentage points of electricity that is carbon-intensive. Although the technology has proven, it require enormous energy expenditures to capture, isolate, and sequester CO2. Additionally, doing so is highly costly. Our research typically indicates that it is not a component of the answer for complete decarbonization.

Net Zero Target

What is Net Zero?

Countries, cities and companies are increasingly committing to reaching net zero by 2050 – removing as much CO2 as they produce to limit global warming. By definition, net zero emissions means reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the lowest possible level, with any remaining emissions reabsorbed by the atmosphere by means of oceans and forests.

The energy sector is critical to addressing the global climate crisis as it is the primary source of worldwide emissions. Governments have made numerous commitments and efforts to tackle the causes of global warming. Yet, since the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was signed in 1992, CO2 emissions from energy and industry have increased by 60%.
The number of international pledges and initiatives is rising. However, they are still far short of what is required to keep global temperature increases to 1.5 °C and prevent the worst effects of climate change. The goal to Net Zero by 2050 Roadmap, which identifies more than 400 milestones for what must be done and when to decarbonize the global economy within three decades, offers a roadmap to accomplish this challenging and vital goal. A normative IEA scenario called Net Zero Emissions by 2050 (NZE) shows how the global energy sector can achieve net zero CO2 emissions by 2050, with advanced economies achieving net zero emissions ahead of others. Short- and medium-term emission reduction goals, consistent with the Paris Agreement, are set all over the globe to eliminate the worst impacts of climate change this decade. 

The importance of corporate Net Zero targets 

To achieve this, we must balance what we harvest from the environment with the greenhouse gases we release into the atmosphere. 

So as to prevent the harmful effects of climate change, 197 nations pledged to maintain temperature increases well below 1.5°C under the Paris Agreement in 2015. 

In its report from 2018, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that “global net human-caused carbon dioxide emissions would need to fall by about 45% from 2010 levels by 2030, reaching net zero around 2050. pooiiz

Accordingly, any remaining emissions brought on by human activity that cannot be reduced must be offset by removing CO2 from the atmosphere.

Khaitan on the way of Net Zero target

An increasing number of countries, cities and organizations have pledged to reach this goal within 2050. Thus turning the net zero promise into a mainstream act. Khaitan bioenergy aims on net zero and decarbonisation by being part of organizations that support target. The initiative “Net Zero Tracker” has mapped out the number of net zero pledges of countries, cities, regions, and organizations. The focus is to get an impression of how significant an impact these entities may have on reaching the target. According to the reports, 90% of the worldwide economy is committed to achieving net zero. Out of 2000 of the largest publicly traded companies worldwide, the Net Zero Tracker has identified 683 with target. 

Global Net Zero coverage

 Net Zero targets by various corporates

On an organizational level, the quality of the net zero targets varies. While some companies have set ambitious targets for deep emission cuts, others have set modest emissions reduction targets. Mainly lacking detailed abatement planning. The variation in the quality and structure of targets makes it harder to compare companies’ net zero targets and their implications.  

The Net Zero Standard 

The net-zero commitments need to translate into quantifiable goals and plans for which businesses can held responsible. Net zero aims are now more transparent, comparable, and likely to be of high quality. And also it succeed by being in line with standards. One such standard that provides substance and direction to targets is the SBTi’s (Science Based Targets Initiative) Net Zero Standard. The SBTi Net Zero Standard offers a comprehensive, common net zero concept grounded in science. The standard is the first of its kind in the world to give businesses a way to contribute. Also to making the world economy reach the goal.

Corporate net zero targets vary in three ways: the target’s boundaries, the mitigating measures selected, and the deadline for achieving the target. Aiming for significant emission reductions in its scopes 1, 2, and 3 of at least 90% by 2050 . Also halving their emissions by 2030, businesses to comply with the Net Zero Standard must set both long and short-term goals.

According to the Net Zero guiding principles, there are two requirements for achieving net zero and keeping warming to 1.5°C: 

  1. Achieve value-chain emission reductions on a scale. It is consistent with the level of mitigation reached in paths that keep global warming to 1.5°C with no or minimal level. 
  2. To permanently remove an equivalent amount of atmospheric Carbon dioxide. Thus to offset the effects of any remaining sources of residual emissions. 

Corporate net zero targets are crucial for businesses to demonstrate that the private sector can advance the fight against climate change. Pledges for net zero are becoming more common, but setting a science-based goal demonstrates accountability.

Refinery Carbon Reduction

The following strategic actions should follow to reduce direct CO2 emissions at oil refineries:

Energy efficiency

Improvements in energy effeciency considered by many as a cost-effective mitigation method. Although they may only be able to reduce emissions by 5-10%.
The rebound effect, a phenomenon that would somewhat offset the advantages. It has also been suggesting as a possible outcome of increased energy efficiency made possible by technological advancements.
Increases in energy efficiency cannot primarily drive the decarbonization of the refining sector.

Carbon Capture and Storage

Since the 1970s, the oil and gas refineries has pioneered using CCS technology. It mainly focus for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), establishing a foundation for its implementation in other CO2 mitigation applications.
There has been extensive research on using CCS technology to lower emissions in refineries.
The general view is that collecting CO2 from larger combined emission stacks is feasible.

The forecasts include CO2 capture from bigger emission sources. It may be steam methane reformers, fluid catalytic converters, crude atmospheric and vacuum distillation units, and power plant stacks.
According to their assessment, the CO2 capture and compression system comes in second place. With a cost of 47%, followed by interconnectors. It retrofits at 38% and utility plants operating on natural gas at 15% of the total cost of CO2 avoidance.
On the other end, several emissions from boilers, heaters, or furnaces dispersed around a refining site are more complex to control because of their lower CO2 concentrations and flow rates, as well as the possibilities for contaminants.
The economics of CO2 capture from various diverse point sources is still poorly understandable. Thus site-specific assessments need for a more accurate estimation.

Fuel Shifting

Fuel shifting is another important to choose the appropriate approach considering fuel combustion contributes to about 70% of a refinery’s emissions.
Switching to biomass could produce a significant environmental burden and potentially disrupt the biomass industry, despite being appealing in terms of CO2 reduction and cost.
Also, because of administrative and security concerns, direct-fired heaters and boilers utilizing solid biomass are considering as impractical in oil refineries.

On the contrary line, gaseous fuels, specifically for the combined heat and power (CHP) plant, could function as drop-in fuels without the requirements for extensive refinery operations restructuring.
Although there is an anticipation that the operation of hydrogen-fired boilers will be as stable as that of their natural gas equivalents, such boilers have not undergo testing in a manufacturing environment. Thus raising the question about the type of heat transfer and the degree of gas emissions.
The same is for electric heating if operating costs dramatically lowered and the technology demonstrated to be dependable.

The worldwide energy sector in 2050 is based mainly on renewables, with solar the single largest source of supply.
All governments must have a single, constant objective while collaborating closely with corporations, investors, and citizens to bring about this cleaner, healthier future.

Environmental Sustainability- Challenges And Opportunities

Sustainability is the capability to endure. Sustainability is the long-standing maintenance of welfare that has social, economic, and environmental measures. Also it covers the idea of union, a mutually dependency, and interlinking with every living and non-living thing on earth. This theoretical understanding moves well beyond definitions driven by growth-oriented economic perceptions for the challenges and opportunities for achieving sustainability. This consider humans as offering stewardship, the responsible resource management.

Most of the organizations experience several challenges to achieve environmental sustainability internally and externally. These challenges should addressed by applying opportunities that are available and accessible to these organizations.

The environmental issues on earth have extended radically in the past decades, and they are currently among the main threats and challenges which impact people’s lifestyles and organisational processes worldwide.

All businesses have felt these effects, but usually, under-developed countries carry the highest weight. Our primary goal in this paper is to discuss the trends, opportunities and challenges associated with environmental sustainability, primarily in industries and organisations.

Environmental Sustainability Challenges

Innovation-based scenario

Considerable vitality and rapid growth rates illustrate several markets in developing divisions and innovative companies or organizations. Organizations or businesses in these industries may control their environmental change or effect by creating resourceful ecological policies. This approach without implementing efficient environmental administration structures is the main challenge for reaching sustainability.

However, the rate of market development can counterbalance the environmental effectiveness and achievements the firm is getting. When sales increase fast, enhancements in environmental effectiveness happened quicker than market growth to get total environmental gains or advantages.

This is a significant challenge that several industries and organisations must pass through when they migrate from domestic to international markets or from minor to mass markets. Product, development, and business form innovations contribute significantly to harmonising growth.

High-risk scenario

The situations of minimal manageability and minimal development rates of the market proposed a condition where environmental sustainability is a complex challenge. This is an instance of erosion directives, air standard guidelines, climate directives, and condition services, such as fisheries, tourism, etc. The difficulty derives partially from the point that these gains are mutually created. Also from the fact that they are all spatially and partly unconnected to the organisation and industry structure.

Consequently, new green global authority needs to advance this challenges by engaging several organisations from varied institutional fields, including science, economics, politics, etc. For example, companies like PepsiCo Inc have been following an international policy on environmental sustainability. Some companies have decreased energy and water usage to decrease greenhouse discharge and reduce packaging and waste cost.

Climate Change

Climate change caused by human activities and its impacts on international development is an element of the broader challenge of attaining environmental sustainability. It needs a change of the process, amount of output, supply, and usage.

Since the international economy is factually unsustainable currently and cannot take in more economical. As increase in population also cause severe hazards of global destabilization or deterioration. The population rise directly cause increasing greenhouse discharges and their effects, the areas exploiting for goods and services prices, raised water shortage, increased oil prices, and so forth.

Environmental Sustainability Opportunities

Energy Efficiency

Industries and organisations have a technology that has considerably reduced non-renewable energy needs in housing. This sustainability trend sometimes achievable to build entirely passive houses that do not depend on all active systems for environmental management.

Enhancement to energy effectiveness engages decisions concerning the construction services and envelope. This can be either mechanical or electrical. Presently, insulation degrees in almost all housings are under the best possible levels, and related environmental changes continue to rise.

Glazing technologies provide industries and organisations such as Barclays banks enough opportunities to go considerably above their performance. Also the total price of developments, if minimal, matches up to future substitution required by elevating energy prices.

Industries must invest in renewable energy technologies. Because they have the possible environmental standard and stand for an opportunity to create or produce future incomes. Renewable energy that abides by dependable environmental quality is usually called Green Power. In order to differentiate it from other renewable resources which engages major ecological concerns such as the James Bay project .


Enhancing the durability decreases frequent incarnate energy and expenses related to protection, repair and replacement. Thus helps in attaining envelope durability in the durations of cold climate interprets into massive degrees of thermal insulation. However it is located outboard of the system or organisation.

Durable ends, fittings, machines and equipment must be chosen to balance the service life of the housing arrangement and envelope. Else the housing or building as a system will face challenges related to disparity durability.

Adaptability & Flexibility

Several industries, organisations, or business housings are destroyed since they grow outmoded and cannot efficiently contain new uses. Many reconstruction finances undergo consumption by issues linked to nonflexible and maladaptive housing systems.

Adaptability and flexibility reflections in housing systems need an assessment of widespread typology, which states the essentials of function and form while relating to the peculiarities of cultural position and temporal tenancy. An evaluation of these housing forms, which have provided various recreation series, offers an appealing difference to several current testing experiments.


Environmental sustainability has been the primary concern of governments, organisations and industries since it dramatically affects their process. To ensure environmental sustainability, stability is necessary between the protection of the ecological system, growth of the economy and safety of the social and cultural welfare of the people.

Business organisations may have advantages from environmental sustainability to a higher level. This will decrease dangerous effects on land, water, and air and assist them in adhering to statutory requirements.

Developed and underdeveloped countries are attending to climate change and the future environment, which has be essential for companies to integrate this impression into sustainability policies.

Environmental Sustainability And Trends

The environment means the surrounding. The environment can be natural or artificial surroundings. The surroundings usually affect and are affected by human activities.

Taking people as the central point, any other thing that surrounds humankind is the environment. People directly or indirectly depend on natural surroundings for their live hood. Also by exploiting these resources, men get food, industrial raw materials, and medicine. In the efforts to satisfy human satiable needs, the natural environment has been destroyed or damaged, affecting human life.

A healthy planet is requiring to reduce poverty, attain equality in resource distribution, and feed the current generation without limiting the future generation’s capability of providing for its population. Other than the economic effects of environmental damage, there are may important aspects that effects of the world’s gradual ecological damage. 

Environmental sustainability

Sustainable environmental management is the significant responsibility of states, firms, and individuals.

Sustainability is the process of utilizing limited natural resources efficiently and effectively without limiting the capability of upcoming generations to meet their own needs. Resources are not under equal distribution. However, they are enough for the entire world population only if they are well-managed and organized.

Despite this recognition of the need to protect the environment, forests, land, water, and fisheries are often over-exploiting by a few individuals who have influence and act in self-interest.

Clearly there is an excellent connection between environmental damage, industrialization and urbanization. According to the reports that human beings altered the natural environment and resulted in living in an unclean, polluted environment. On the other hand, the environment has limited the benefits that human beings could have derived from it.

Factors Affecting Sustainability

Environmental sustainability


The world is fast industrializing, and urban centres are growing. Industrial processes and urban populations emit pollutants into the environment, decreasing environmental sanity. When wastes are not disposed of correctly, they adversely affect the environment. Industries produce greenhouses for the atmosphere, have solid wastes on the earth service and utilize raw materials from the environment. When this is the case, then the environment is damaged.

Population Rise

With the increasing world population, and the need to meet its current conditions, the world is over-exploiting the available natural resources to the point that some have become exhausted. The exhaustion means that future generations cannot meet their needs from such resources. Some people are not aware of the need to manage and conserve the environment, and they misuse the available resources and do not see it as their role to protect the environment.


Selfishness for individuals and firms has resulted in damage and over-exploitation of natural resources as people aim to meet their needs. Indeed the need to meet generational needs has relaxed some national and international rules where governments are not actively enforcing them. 

Environmental Sustainability Trends


Constructions, industries, and urban regions evaluate and disclose the use of energy, carbon discharge, and other environmental sustainability measurements. The landlords of commercial houses do not often have an opportunity. For example, five United States cities and three states have implemented policies which govern energy performance measurement and disclosure currently, and ten other states have proposed the implementation of these policies to support residents and investors in creating effective well-versed choices.

Transparency has grown in cities, and CDP requested 60 cities globally to account for environmental sustainability-associated information in 2011. Among them, 40 cities took action, with 35 taking responses from the public, which was the best idea.

CDP has increased its invitations to 150 cities worldwide. And they have experienced optimistic responses, along with unexpected knowledge and dedication on climate change matters by heads of cities. Clearly these city leaders identified that controlling water, energy, and waste would support the interests of the firms and tenants. Also it support to improve the standard of living in many approaches.

Global Consistency

Extensive reports for environmental sustainability by urban areas and multi-national corporations have strengthened. The reliable approaches to measure the efficiency of water, energy, and other environmental sustainability approaches from a global perspective.

Provided the broad local difference in environmental precedence all over the globe, the intended objective may not be a long international standard. But a method to interpret business activities and local government in international terms for measuring efficiency and identifying success.

LEED is the mechanism for ranking the housing environmental sustainability in the United States. It is often following in several countries with its mechanisms, as landlords aspire to magnetize global tenants.

In 2011, ISO 50001 standard was provided by International Organization for Standardization for energy. This organization structure contains conditions for measurement, certification, and accounting of energy usage.

Reliable measurements are vital to industries and companies. While they emphasize environmental sustainability in their personal functions and progressively all over their supply chain. As CDP cities are not putting any effort into rating the environmental sustainability of urban areas. Whereas they are building up an internationally cohesive background for recognizing the efficiency of environmental sustainability approaches followed by various industries and cities.

Public & Private Collaboration

Business organizations in the United States discovered their mutual goals in 2011. They recognized that association between private and public sectors and collaborative plans are frequently the efficient approach to overpower barriers to environmental sustainability. Some of these shared approaches would be felt mostly in 2012 and 2013.

The Better Buildings Challenge demonstrates the alliance between government and industries objectives in looking for carbon and energy decline and attaining these objectives as well needs support; for instance, organizations such as Greenprint Foundation and World Economic Forum have ordered reforms to loan supporting policies established by the legislative organizations to support funding of energy retrofits and more openly, states in America have realized that they can raise renewable energy installations at housing through providing inducements which would create solar power gainful for landlords within a moderately minimal time.

Jones Lang LaSalle, a section representing companies and government bodies, observes great unused synergy between companies and government bodies in attaining environmental objectives, especially in public and private associations.5 Taking one instance, airports and public bodies usually have surplus land, which is inappropriate for profit-making asset development such as the huge solar energy system.

Initiatives to attain the goal of environmental sustainability

Scientific innovations, inventions and development have resulted in better means of doing things to ensure minimal environmental pollution. The world is becoming a world village with improved transport and communication networks. The transport industry is the one that utilizes some of the world’s limited and exhaustible resources and fuel and then emits gasses that pollute the environment.

Collaborations among different countries have called for product improvement in such industries. Focus is currently on internal productions in a company where automation and recycling strategies embraced. To target different sectors and pollution, the international community is at the forefront of device mechanisms that will assist human beings in being sensitive to environmental damage. Such an initiative was the Kyoto Protocol on carbon emission.

Civil society, government and international bodies are targeting a transformation of human attitudes and perceptions towards the environment to ensure that people appreciate the need to conserve the environment for their and future generations’ good. The enlightenment from the massive campaigns is yielding fruits as people are becoming more sensitive about using the available resources.

The public is impacted by their attitude toward companies that do not have eco-friendly processes and products. A tendency is emerging that consumer power is forcing companies less concerned with the environment to revive their processes and products. Many companies have embraced corporate social responsibilities, which are targeting environmental conservation. These programs include tree planting, recycling and environmental education programs.


Humankind rely on the natural environment directly or indirectly for their live-hood. To ensure that the current generation meets its needs without limiting the degree to which future generation will meet theirs, Khaitan bio energy focus on effective conservation of the environment is necessary. Governments, international bodies, companies and individuals should join efforts to ensure minimal environmental damage.

Clean Energy

Clean energy is the energy from sources that release air pollutants, while green energy is derived from natural sources. There is a precise difference between these two energy types, even though they are often same.

Renewable energy is generated from sources that are constantly being replenished. Unlike fossil fuels and gas, these renewable energy resources won’t run out and include wind and solar energy.

While most green sources of energy are renewable, but not all renewable sources are green. For example, hydropower is a renewable resource. Still, some would argue that it is not green since the deforestation and industrialization for the construction of hydro dams may cause damage to the environment.

It is best to combine renewable energy sources with green energy, such as solar and wind power, to make the perfect mix of clean energy.

Asimple way to identify the differences between these are:

  • Clean energy means clean air
  • Green energy means natural sources
  • Renewable energy means recyclable sources

How does it work?

Clean energy produces power without adverse environmental impacts, such as releasing greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide. Solar power, wind power, and some hydro resources are all clean energy sources.

Why is it so Important?

The important aspect of clean energy is the environmental benefits of keeping mother earth clean. While clean, renewable resources save the world’s natural resources, they also reduce the threat of ecological disasters, similar to energy tumbles or the problems associated with natural gas leaks. With energy diversification through different power plants using various energy sources, it’s possible to produce dependable power inventories to enhance energy security, ensuring enough to meet our demands.


Clean energy provides a variety of environmental and profitable benefits, including a reduction in air pollution. Different clean energy sources also reduce the need for imported fuels( and the associated fiscal and environmental costs they dodge).

Renewable clean energy also has essential cost savings, as there’s no need to extract and transport energies, similar to oil or coal, as the resources naturally replenish.

Another artificial benefit of a clean energy blend is the creation of jobs to develop, manufacture and install the clean energy coffers of the future.

How Can Clean Energy Be Used?

Wind power attaches a windmill to a generator, turning the blades into force. This form of energy has been using for centuries to grind grain, pump water, or perform other mechanical tasks. But it has various application in producing electricity. Onshore and offshore wind farms are becoming increasingly prevalent. Nevertheless, wind power can also utilized at a much smaller scale to generate electricity, even to recharge mobile phones. Aside from these examples of renewable sources, some include geothermal, biomass, and tidal power, which all have advantages and applications.


Clean energy have various applications, from electricity generation to heating water, depending on the energy source.

Solar energy has application in heating and lighting structures, generating electricity, heating water directly, and cooling. Solar panels allow power from the sun to collect and turn into electricity. For instance, numerous people use solar energy for batteries and small theatre lanterns. Still, this same clean energy technology can gauged up to larger panels that used to give power to homes or other structures or, indeed, installations of multiple solar panels, similar to a community solar panel array to entire power municipalities.

Water is another clean resource. Hydroelectric power plants are most apparent, which take water inflow from streams, rivers or lakes to produce electricity. A less quantity of water use comes through external pipes in municipalities and towns. Since there is a huge dependence on water in a day to day life, there’s a move towards employing this energy to help meet domestic and other power requirements. As generators are cheaper to make, this use of external water is getting closer to being a diurnal reality.

Wind power attaches a windmill to a creator, turning the blades into force. This energy has application for many years to grind grain, pump water, or perform other mechanical tasks, but it’s now used more frequently to produce electricity. Onshore and offshore wind granges are getting decreasingly current. Nonetheless, wind power can also employed at a much lower scale to produce electricity, indeed to recharge mobile phones.

Away from these exemplifications of renewable sources, some include geothermal, biomass, and tidal power, which all have advantages and operations.

The Future of Clean Energy

The future of clean energy looks bright. Recently there was an increase installation of renewable energy capacity globally than that of the combination of fossil fuel and nuclear power. Renewable sources now contribute more than one-third of globally installed power capacity. 

As the world population grows, an ever-increasing demand for energy and renewable sources is the answer to providing sustainable energy solutions while protecting the planet from climate change.

Cities and states are also creating policies to increase the usage of renewable energy, which is happening more than just nationally. Several places have set renewable energy portfolios to require a certain percentage of energy to generate from renewable sources. Over 100 cities worldwide now use at least 70% renewable energy. As more towns drive towards becoming 100% renewable, corporations also play an important role by purchasing huge dependency on renewable power.

Clearly, due to fossil fuels being a finite resource, it is clear that the future is renewable, so renewable sources expect to continue to increase in future.

How Can Clean Energy Reduce Global Warming?

Humans have been using fossil fuels for past many decades, and their use increases due to the release of the GHG that produced as a result of burning these fuels. These GHG trap hot rays of the sun in the atmosphere, causing the Earth’s temperature to rise. Global warming is a symptom of climate change that has led to increased extreme weather events, shifting wildlife habitats, rising sea levels and other effects.

Since renewable energy sources don’t result in the emission of GHG such as carbon dioxide, they do not contribute to global warming. Due to these renewable sources, climate change is not advanced, and measures such as reforestation can mitigate the damage already done to the climate.

Can Clean Energy Replace Fossil Fuels?

Since humans have been using fossil fuels for decades, meaning the switch to clean energy has been relatively recent. So, renewable energy sources are still unpredictable and need to meet our global demands for energy. This may show that renewable energy has to get replace with carbon-based sources.

However, it is clear that our energy needs can balance by efficiently storing renewable energy when the demand is present. Much work is focused to improve clean energy’s infrastructure and storage capabilities. With studies showing that clean, renewable energy may replace fossil fuels by 2050.

How Will Clean Energy Help Our Economy?

The creation of jobs related to the manufacture, installation and maintenance of clean energy solutions. It is one of the financial benefits of clean energy. Renewable energy and clean energy are growth sectors as the world moves away from fossil fuels. That means more opportunities will arise in eMobility for power generation and storage.

Of course, the financial implications of clean energy are just part of the story since the real intention behind using clean energy is to create a better future for this universe, so clean energy is good for the environment and a forward step for the industry.


Clean energy can be obtained from various sources. This, when put together, could create solutions for our energy needs.

  • A year’s worth of energy may generated by solar energy alone since the amount of solar energy that reaches the Earth’s surface in one hour is enough to cover the entire world’s energy needs. Of course, solar power has a limit in daytime, the seasons of the year and geographical location. Despite this, solar energy is already has application in both a significant and a domestic level.
  • Wind power is a form of clean energy, with wind farms providing an excellent contribution to power in the UK and elsewhere. When domestic ‘off grid’ wind energy is available, only some properties are suitable for wind turbines.
  • Hydropower is the main commercial clean energy source. This energy source is really more reliable than either wind or solar power and allows for the easy storage of the energy generate so that it can find uses in line with demand. Municipal hydropower also undergoes investigation, meaning that the future could see us all using water flow through pipes in our homes to generate electricity. The use of tidal energy is a large-scale version of hydropower that provides a reliable and predictable supply of energy, although it is not a constant source of energy.
  • TWI has been advancing geothermal power, which harnesses the heat below the Earth’s surface. This is to heat homes or produce electricity. This resource is highly effective in some regions than others. 
  • Biomass uses solid fuel created from plant materials to get electricity. Although this energy source still needs burning of stubbles. Usage of agricultural, industrial and domestic waste as solid, liquid and gas fuel is economical and has environmental benefits.

Is Clean Energy Clean?

All clean energy sources are ‘clean’ by definition. However, not all renewable energy sources are fully clean. For instance, burning wood from sustainably managed forests can be renewable, but it is not pure since this releases harmful gases into the atmosphere.

A truly clean and renewable energy source has zero carbon cost of production and storage, and that is what makes solar power and wind energy clean and renewable.


Clean energy is the future for the power needs of humanity across the globe as reliance on fossil fuels continues to diminish. As the drive towards clean, green and renewable energy continues to im[rove, the cost will fall, and so new plans to develop and install these new power solutions.

More and more people recognize the benefits of clean energy, and so more countries, states and nations sign up for a green power agenda; this will continue to advance.

Renewable Energy

With innovation, renewable power is booming and beginning to keep the promise of a clean energy future. As solar and wind power generation increase, they are integrated into the national electric grid without compromising sustainability.

This means renewables are increasingly displacing non-renewable fossil fuels for generating power, offering the benefit of lower carbon emissions and other forms of pollution. Biomass and giant hydroelectric dams create difficult trade-offs when considering the impact on life-sustaining on the earth, climate change, and other related problems.

 Renewable Energy In Brief

Renewable energy, often called clean energy, comes from natural sources or constantly replenishing processes. Example: Sunlight and wind are renewable sources, even if their availability depends mainly on time and weather conditions.

It is often believed that renewable energy is a new technology when harnessing nature’s power has been used for centuries for heating, transportation, lighting, and more. Over the past 500 years, humans have increasingly turned to dirtier, cheaper energy sources, such as coal and fracking.

Renewable energy sources are becoming more critical now that we have innovative and cheap methods to capture and retain wind and solar energy. Renewables are also expanding at large and small scales, from giant offshore wind farms to rooftop solar panels on homes, enabling power back to the grid.

Dirty energy

Non-renewable energy is also known as dirty energy. It mainly includes fossil fuels like oil, gas, and coal, and Non-renewable energy sources are available in limited amounts.

Sources of non-renewable energy are also found in particular parts of the world, making them more plentiful in some countries than others. In contrast, every country has access to sunshine and wind. Prioritizing renewable energy can also raise national security by lowering a country’s dependence on fossil fuel exports–rich nations.

Many non-renewable energy sources can endanger our mother planet or its persisting life. For example, oil drilling might require strip-mining boreal forests in Canada; the technology associated with hydraulic fracturing may result in earthquakes and water pollution. Similarly, coal power plants may cause air pollution. Moreover, all of these will eventually contribute to global warming.


Image showing types of renewable energy

Solar Energy

Humans have been using solar energy for many decades—for cultivation, dry foods, and many other daily needs.

Solar or photovoltaic (PV) cells are of silicon or other materials that convert sunlight directly into electricity. Distributed solar systems can produce electricity locally for homes and similar small-scale businesses through rooftop panels or community projects that power entire neighbourhoods. In solar farms, mirrors focus sunlight on acres of solar cells to provide enough energy for thousands of homes. Floating solar farms or “photovoltaics”. It can effectively use wastewater facilities and bodies of water that aren’t ecologically sensitive.

As long as they are appropriately sited, solar energy systems produce no air pollutants or greenhouse gases, and most solar panels have little environmental impact beyond the manufacturing process.

Wind energy

Recently, as tall as skyscrapers—with turbines nearly as wide in diameter—stand at attention worldwide. A force from the wind turns the turbine’s blades, which supports an electric generator and generates electricity.

Other Possible Sources of Energy

Hydroelectric power

Hydropower is the largest and most common renewable energy source for electricity. Hydropower means the power produced by water. The fast flowing water in a large river or rapidly falling water from a high level. This force of water then undergo convertion into electricity by spinning a generator’s turbine blades.

Large hydroelectric plants or mega dams are often considered non-renewable energy globally. Mega-dams divert and reduce natural flows and control access for life that rely on those rivers. Similarly, small hydroelectric plants should undergo careful management and do not cause as much environmental damage as they divert only a tiny fraction of the flow.

Biomass energy

Biomass is an organic material from plants and animals, including crops, waste wood, and trees. When stubble undergo burning, the energy liberation is mainly through heat, which produces electricity.

When producing electricity, biomass is often known as a cleaner, greener alternative to coal and other fossil fuels. However, recent studies have shown that many forms of biomass—especially from forests—have higher emissions of greenhouse gases than fossil fuels. There are also negative consequences for biodiversity. Still, some forms of biomass energy emit fewer greenhouse gases. For example, sawdust and chips from sawmills can be used as low-carbon energy sources.

Geothermal energy

The core of the earth is about as hot as the sun, and it is due to the slow degradation of radioactive particles in rocks at the centre. Using deep well drilling, boiling underground water can brought to the surface, which is pumped through a turbine to generate electricity. When geothermal plants pump steam and water into reservoirs, their emissions are usually low. There are ways to grow geothermal plants without underground reservoirs. However, there are concerns about an increased risk of an earthquake in those areas where there is geological hot spots.


It is still early for tidal and wave energy, but the ocean will always dominated by the moon’s gravity, which makes harnessing it attractive. Some tidal energy approaches, such as tidal barrages, work like dams in an ocean bay or lagoon and may harm wildlife. Tidal power depends on structures on a dam-like system or devices anchored on the ocean floor.

Renewable Energy in Daily Life

Solar power

Using the sun’s rays to power the whole house at a smaller scale through PV cell panels or passive solar home design is possible. Passive solar homes designed to welcome the sun through south-facing windows. It is to retain the warmth through tiles, concrete, bricks and other materials that store heat.

A solar-powered home may generate more power than it needs so that the homeowner can sell the excess electricity to the grid. Batteries are also an economically viable way to store extra solar energy at night. Scientists are hard at work on new approaches that blend properties and functions, such as solar windows.

Geothermal heat pumps

Some coils in the back of your fridge act as a mini heat pump, which removes heat from the interior, keeping foods fresh and cool. This technology is a new take on a recognizable process. In a home, geothermal or geo-exchange pumps use the earth’s temperature to cool homes in summer, warm houses in winter and even heat water.

Geothermal systems can be initially expensive but typically pay off within 5 to 10 years. They are quieter, have fewer maintenance issues, and last longer than traditional air conditioners.

Small wind systems

Boats, ranchers, and cell phone companies regularly use small wind turbines. Recently it is now easy to get help with the site, installation, and maintenance of wind turbine homeowners too. A wind turbine may lower your dependence on the electrical grid depending on the electricity demand.

Selling the energy you collect.

Wind- and solar-powered homes can either stand-alone or connect to the larger electrical grid, as supplied by their power provider. Electric utilities in most states allow homeowners only to pay the difference between the grid-supplied electricity consumed and what they have produced. This process is called net metering. If you can generate more electric power than your requirements, your provider may pay you the retail price.

Renewable energy and you

Using renewable energy sources in your home or advocating for them can speed up the transition toward a clean energy future. Even if you can’t install solar panels, clean electricity may be an alternative. If renewable energy is unavailable through your utility, nowadays, purchasing renewable energy certificates to offset your use is possible.

Green Energy: Its importance, Types and Uses

What is Green Energy?

Green energy is any energy produced from natural resources, like sunlight, wind and water, and it usually comes from renewable energy sources.

The key to these energy resources is that they usually don’t harm the environment through factors such as releasing greenhouse gasses into the earth’s atmosphere.

How Does it Work?

Many renewable energy sources can produce green energy, such as solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and hydroelectric power. Each of these technologies works differently, whether by taking control from the sun, as with solar panels, or using wind turbines or water flow to generate energy.

What Does it Mean?

The definition of green energy is that it cannot emit pollution, such as fossil fuels do, which means that not all renewable energy sources are green. Using organic material from sustainable forests for power generation may be renewable, but the CO2 produced by the burning process makes it not necessarily green. 

It can take millions of years for fossil fuel sources, like coal or natural gas, to replenish themselves. Green sources are usually obtained without any mining or drilling operations which may damage the ecosystems.

Types of Green Energy

The primary types are wind energy, solar power and hydroelectric power. It may include tidal energy, which uses ocean energy from the tides in the ocean. Solar and wind power can be produced on a small scale in people’s homes or on a larger scale in industries.

Image showing types of green energy

The common types of energies are as follows:

Solar Power

Renewable energy, such as solar power, is usually generated using photovoltaic cells, which convert sunlight into electricity. Solar power is also used for heating buildings, cooking, and lighting. Solar energy has now become cheap enough to be applied for domestic uses. It includes garden lighting, although it is also used on a larger scale for entire power neighbor hoods.


Rather than burning stubble, these organic materials can transformed into fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, thus protecting our mother planet. Having supplied just 2.7% of the world’s energy for transport in 2010, biofuels expects to meet over 25% of global transportation fuel demand by the year 2050.

Wind Power

Wind energy generates electricity by using air circulation around the world to push turbines that generate electricity offshore and at higher altitudes.


It is also known as hydroelectric power since it generates electricity using water flow in rivers, streams, dams, or elsewhere. A small-scale hydropower system can even be created using water that flows through pipes in the home, evaporation or rainfall.

Geothermal Energy

This green power uses thermal energy which is obtained from under the earth’s crust. However this resource requires drilling thereby calling the environmental impact into question, it is a considerable resource once tapped into. Thousands of years ago, hot springs were heated by geothermal energy, and today, this same resource is used to generate electricity using steam. The energy stored in the United States alone is enough to produce ten times as much electricity as coal currently can. Iceland, for example, has easy-to-access geothermal resources, but the help relies on its location to be helpful. To be fully ‘green,’ the drilling procedures must be closely monitored.


The renewable resource must also carefully managed to be accurately labelled as a ‘green energy’ source. Biomass power plants generate energy from wood waste, sawdust, and agricultural waste that can burned. While burning these materials releases a greenhouse gas, emissions are still lower than those from petroleum-based fuels.

Why is it so Important?

Green energy is essential for the environment as it replaces the adverse effects of fossil fuels with more environmentally-friendly alternatives. Since it is derived from natural resources, green energy is also often renewable and clean. It means that they emit no greenhouse gases and are usually readily available.

A green energy source releases lesser greenhouse gases than fossil fuels over the course of its life cycle, as well as fewer or low levels of air pollutants. This is not only supporting our planet earth but also better for the health of living organisms that have to breathe the air.

Using green energy can also help stabilize energy prices as these sources are often locally produced and are not affected by geopolitical crises, price spikes, or supply chain disruptions. Economic benefits include creating jobs in building facilities that serve the communities where the workers are employed. Renewable energy created more than million jobs in last few years worldwide.

Due to the energy production through solar and wind power sources, the energy infrastructure is more flexible, less dependent on centralized sources that can lead to disruption, and less resilient to weather-related climate change.

Green energy also represents a low-cost solution for the global energy requirements of many parts of the world. With costs continuing to drop, green energy will become more accessible, especially to developing nations.


Some examples of green energy are in use today, from energy production to thermal heating for buildings, roads and transport. Many industries are now investigating green solutions, and here are a few examples:

Heating and Cooling in Buildings

Green energy solutions used for buildings ranges from large office blocks to people’s homes. These include solar water heaters, biomass-fuelled boilers, direct heat from geothermal, and cooling systems powered by renewable sources.

Industrial Activities

Renewable heat for industrial activities can run using biomass or renewable electricity. Hydrogen is now a significant renewable energy provider for constructing materials like cement, iron, steel and chemical industries.


Sustainable biofuels and renewable electricity are growing globally in use for transportation across various industry sectors. Automotive is an obvious example as electrification rises to replace te use of fossil fuels, but aerospace and construction are other areas actively investigating electrification.

Can It Replace Fossil Fuels?

Green energy may replace fossil fuels in the coming future. However, it may require diverse production from different means to achieve this objective. Geothermal is usually effective in places where this resource is easy to tap. At the same time, wind energy or solar power is a better way on the basis of geographic locations.

As green energy sources combines to meet global needs. So there is progress in producing and developing these resources, and therefore there is a chance of fossil fuels to phase out eventually.

Despite the fact that we are still some years away from this happening, it is necessary to lower climate change, improve the environment, and move toward a more sustainable future.

Economical Viability

The economic viability of green energy depends on a comparison with fossil fuels. As readily-accessible fossil fuels are undergoing depletion, the cost of this type of energy will only escalate.

Additionally, greener energy sources are becoming cheaper as fossil fuels become more expensive. Other factors favour green energy, like the ability to produce relatively inexpensive localized energy solutions like solar farms. The interest, investment and development of green energy solutions are bringing costs down as we continue to build up our knowledge and can build on past breakthroughs.

As a result, green energy can become not only economically viable but also the preferred option.

Which Type Is The Most Efficient?

Efficiency in green energy is dependent on location. If you have frequent and intense sunlight, it is easy to create a fast and efficient solution for power.

However, to truly compare different energy types, it is necessary to analyze the entire life cycle of an energy source. This process includes an assessment of the energy requires to create green energy resources. Analyzing how much energy can be convert into electricity, and any necessary environmental clearing. Of course, ecological damage would prevent a source from genuinely being ‘green,’ but when all of these factorscombines, it creates a ‘Levelised Energy Cost‘ (LEC).

The most efficient source of green energy is wind farms, which require less refinement and processing than solar panels. Advances in composites technology and testing have helped improve wind turbine lifespan and LEC. However, the same can implement with solar panels, which also see a great deal of development.

A significant advantage of green energy solutions is that they typically require little additional energy expenditure. After they constructed since they often use readily renewable energy sources. Among these are wind energy and solar energy. For coal, usable energy generates just 29% of its original value, whereas wind power generates 1164%.

Renewable energy sources are ranked as follows in efficiency (may vary as developments continue):

  • Wind Power
  • Geothermal
  • Hydropower
  • Nuclear
  • Solar Power

Green Energy Empowering Safer Planet

As a result of the natural resources used in green energy, such as sunshine, wind and water, there are tangible benefits for the environment. Energy sources like these are constantly replenishing, so they are the complete opposite of fossil fuels, which emit greenhouse gases and are unsustainable.

Creating energy that has a zero carbon footprint is a great stride to create an environmental future. If we are able to use it to meet our power, industrial or transportation needs, we will significantly reduce our environmental impact.

Green Energy, Clean Energy and Renewable Energy –Difference

Using these terms interchangeably, a resource can be all of these three together. It may also be renewable but not green or clean (such as with some forms of biomass energy).

Green energy is energy that comes from natural sources, such as the sun.

 Clean energy does not release pollutants into the air. Clean energy comes from renewable, zero-emission sources that do not pollute the atmosphere when used, and energy efficiency measures save energy.

Renewable energy comes from constantly replenishing sources, such as hydro power, wind power or solar energy.  Renewable energy is that energy that comes from sources or processes that are constantly replenished. These energy sources include solar, wind, geothermal, and hydroelectric power

Wind power is an example which comes under the three categories together. It is renewable, green and clean – since it comes from natural sources, self-replenishing and non-polluting sources.


Green energy is part of the world’s future, offering a cleaner and better alternative to many of today’s energy sources. Readily replenished, these energy sources are good for the environment and lead to a rise in employment and become more economically viable as the progress in development.

Since the fact that fossil fuels are a thing of the past, and so they do not provide a sustainable solution to our energy needs, by developing various green energy solutions, we can create a sustainable future for our energy provision without damaging the world we all live in.


Zero Liquid Discharge

What is ZLD?

Generally speaking, zero liquid discharge refers to a process that maximizes water recovery from a wastewater source otherwise destined for disposal. Salts and other solids are produced from wastewater and are usually disposed of in landfills. When all wastewater is purified and recycled, zero liquid is discharged at the end of the treatment cycle of zero-liquid discharge (ZLD).

Economic growth results in massive energy consumption, which leads to a series of environmental issues worldwide. Governments have been making strict emission standards for environmental protection. In the Paris Agreement, a universal environmental target to keep global warming below 2 degrees Celsius. This led to ambitious decarbonization goals set for most developed countries to support with policies and laws. COP26 reaffirms the temperature goal in the Paris Agreement and phased out low-efficiency fossil fuel subsidies. The UK parliament passed an amendment for cutting emissions in 2019 to achieve the pollution reduction ambitions, which set a zero discharge emission precedent.

Ethanol production: focussing sustainability

The process that Khaitan implemented not only produces ethanol but also converts waste streams into high-value-added by-products by undergoing multistage refinery steps. Inorder to achieve zero liquid discharge, additional waste processing methods are carried out. It is possible to avoid water pollution in the proposed process due to an extra water recycling step.The use of fossil fuels as operation energy, however, results in increased CO2 emissions and reduced water pollution. To ensure the proposed bioethanol plant has an environmental advantage over traditional ethanol refinery plants, the CO2 emission per kWh for all kinds of electricity should not be over 0.11 kg/kWh. Thus, the proposed concept of zero discharge bioethanol plants could establish in Countries with access to sufficient renewable electricity supply.

Lignocellulosic biomass is one promising renewable resource due to its low price, abundance and efficient conversion technologies. On the one hand, the technologies to convert lignocellulosic biomass into biochemicals, such as biodegradable plastics, succinic acid and ethanol, are mature. These chemicals have the potential to replace fossil fuels-derived chemicals by providing technological support. Besides, the feedstock supply could ensure due to the abundance of availability globally.

Components of Bio refineries

In order to achieve zero liquid discharge, biomass to ethanol biorefinery plant includes the following nine main process steps. (1) feed handling. (2) feedstock pre-treatment. (3) enzyme production. (4) hydrolysis and fermentation. (5) distillation. (6) combined heat and power generation. (7) wastewater treatment. (8) storage. (9) utility management (water system and power system),

  At first, the feedstock undergoes loading and shredding for downsizing. Then pre-treated at a high temperature to decompose lignocellulosic biomass into its components like lignin and cellulose. For high-efficiency hydrolysis. Sulfuric acid, a proven competitive low-cost and high-efficiency pre-treatment solution widely applies in feedstock pre-treatment. Then, the pretreated feedstock mixes with an enzyme. This is produced in the enzyme production process for hydrolysis and fermentation under a suitable reaction condition. Finally, the glucose and pentoses hydrolyzed from cellulose and hemicellulose undergo catalyzing by an enzyme converting to ethanol. The ethanol distillation process will separate ethanol, lignin and stillage. The ethanol and stillage further process for storage and wastewater processing (the grey flow chart in, respectively. The storage plays a crucial role for elemental sources supplying to bioethanol plants.

Lignin Extraction

Extracted lignin from ethanol distillation and biogas from zero liquid discharge undergo combustion to produce energy mainly heat, power and steam. This is for biorefinery plant operation and electricity grid to increase plant profitability. The ash disposal is used for agricultural purposes in such cases. The utilities include on-site recirculation of cooling water and external electricity from the grid to support biorefinery plant operation.

It is clear that various waste streams such as CO2 and wastewater discarded to the environment causes secondary pollutants, simultaneously reduce the benefits to sustainable development. However, its original intention was to reuse agricultural waste and protect the environment. For instance, in ethanol refinery process, stillage from ethanol distillation contains abundant organics. This high-value contents convert to low-value biogas for combustion. Lignin is a substantial potential raw material for the chemistry industry. In comparison, most of the lignin in traditional bioethanol refineries will burn for power generation, which causes not only source waste but also environmental impact. There is no doubt that the lignocellulose-based bioethanol production cost is much higher than the ethanol market value. Thus, optimizing processing design and increasing by-product value is Khaitan bio energy focus on Zero discharge facility, thus focus on saving our mother planet.

ZLD Ethanol Plants

Compared to the traditional process, this work aims to maximize the value-added by-products and achieve zero waste emission. It proposes a by-products processing path that extracts value-added lignin, furfural and other organics. To realize this, wet stillage undergoes filtering and dried to separate lignin and wastewater in the lignin extraction process. In this process, the insoluble organics such as lignin, small amounts of water and soluble organics will get remove from stillage. The eutrophic wastewater will further extracted to generate furfural, ethanol and other organic powder by multistage fractionation in by-products purification processing and storing in storage. As with traditional bioethanol production, purified water will pump to feedstock pre-treatment processing for water recycling. Except for primary usage, the rest purified water will discharge into the environment. The organic powder will then return to the soil as fertilizer for soil organic matter protection.

Methods used

To achieve the innovation of the bioethanol production process, the design of the zero liquid discharge process stood on the excellent than previous traditional ethanol production. Therefore, Khaitan bio energy implements the by-products purification process and lignin extraction process focusing towards zero emission. In contrast, the other areas like feed loading, pre-treatment, enzyme production, hydrolysis and fermentation, distillation, utility, and storage.

CO2 emission

Regarding environmental impact, CO2 emission is a critical criterion for biorefinery ecological assessment. 

The calculation of CO2 emission of electricity is based on the data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in 2020 in the US. The total CO2 emission of zero waste emission plant accounts for approximately 27.6 % of that in the traditional bioethanol plant. To extract high-concentration by-products from mixed aqueous solutions, a high volume of water should undergo distillation, resulting in significant electricity consumption in By-product purification


The zero discharge emission process is more competitive than traditional biorefinery plants. This is mainly in terms of profitability in the ethanol market particularly if possible to achieve low electricity prices. The pre-treatment and fermentation processes are critical in capital cost. High value-added by-products income improves the bioethanol plant’s profitability. 

Because the development of lignocellulosic biomass biorefinery is still developing, a substantial technical gap exists in replacing fossil chemicals. Although the purchase price of cellulosic biomass feedstocks is competitive with petroleum on an energy basis, the lack of economic competitiveness in biochemicals is the main challenge for biorefinery.