Zero Emission Day is an annual event that holds significant importance in the face of escalating environmental concerns. It serves as a beacon of hope, offering a glimpse into the potential of a sustainable future. This global initiative, observed on September 21 each year, aims to raise awareness about the detrimental effects of carbon emissions and urges individuals, communities, and organizations to actively reduce their carbon footprint to zero for a single day.
The Evolution of Zero Emission Day:
A Concise Historical Account Zero Emissions Day, an annual event that aims to heighten awareness about carbon emissions and promote emission reduction, has its genesis in the escalating global concern for environmental sustainability. So the notion of dedicating a day to curtailing carbon emissions is a testament to the pressing need to tackle climate change and its subsequent challenges. Let us embark on a journey through the history of Zero Emissions Day to comprehend its origins and significance.
Early Environmental Movements:
The roots of Zero Emissions Day were planted in the latter part of the 20th century, when environmental consciousness began to gain momentum. During this period, diverse movements and initiatives aimed at fostering ecological awareness and sustainability emerged. The emphasis on reducing carbon emissions gained traction as scientific research revealed the direct correlation between carbon dioxide levels and climate change.
The Dawn of the 21st Century:
At the onset of the 21st century, the pressing issue of climate change became increasingly apparent. Therefore, in response, international organizations, governments, and environmental activists intensified their efforts to combat the detrimental effects of global warming. Amidst these growing concerns, the notion of dedicating a specific day to reducing carbon emissions gained significant traction.
The inception of Zero Emissions Day can be traced back to September 21, 2008, when a group of individuals recognized the need for a symbolic event to underscore the importance of carbon reduction and inspire collective action. The date was chosen to coincide with the autumnal equinox, a day when the duration of day and night is equal, symbolizing the need to balance human activities with environmental health. September 21 is also the United Nations’ International Day of Peace.
Expanding Impact and Awareness:
Over time, Zero Emissions Day gained significant momentum as a symbolic occasion that prompted individuals to contemplate their daily habits and their ecological impact. Also, it underscored the necessity for sustainable transportation, energy-efficient practices, and conscientious consumer choices. Environmental organizations, educational institutions, and commercial enterprises joined forces, actively participating in and organizing events, workshops, and campaigns to amplify the message of emission reduction.
A Global Movement:
In recent years, it has emerged as a worldwide phenomenon, transcending geographical and cultural boundaries. Governments, corporations, and individuals alike acknowledge the paramount importance of curtailing carbon emissions in order to combat climate change. Therefore this day serves as a reminder of our collective duty to safeguard the environment and embrace more sustainable practices in our daily lives.
Understanding Zero Emission Day:
The essence of this day lies in its straightforward yet impactful concept: dedicating a day to living without generating any carbon emissions. This entails minimizing the use of fossil fuels such as gasoline and coal, and instead embracing eco-friendly alternatives like public transportation, cycling, and walking. It serves as a moment for introspection, prompting individuals to contemplate the consequences of their choices and their profound impact on the environment.
The Significance of Zero Emission Day:
Mitigating Climate Change:
The emission of carbon is a significant contributor to global warming and climate change. Therefore by observing Zero Emissions Day, we demonstrate our commitment to combating these issues and showcase the possibility of reducing emissions.
Raising Public Awareness:
This day serves as an opportunity to educate individuals about the carbon footprint of their daily activities. Therefore it encourages us to reconsider our transportation, energy consumption, and lifestyle choices.
Promoting Collective Action:
It emphasizes that individual actions, when multiplied across millions, can create a substantial impact. It highlights that we are all part of a more significant movement Zero emission Day for positive change.
As individuals and industries seek ways to eliminate emissions for a day, it drives innovation in renewable energy, green technologies, and sustainable practices.
How to Participate in Zero Emission Day:
Opt for walking, cycling, or utilizing public transportation as alternatives to driving a car. Consider working remotely to eliminate the need for commuting altogether.
Adopt practices such as turning off lights, unplugging electronics, and conserving energy throughout the day. Utilize natural light and ventilation to minimize reliance on artificial lighting and cooling.
Planting a Tree:
Recognize the capacity of trees to absorb carbon dioxide, rendering them valuable allies in the battle against emissions. Engage in the act of planting a tree as a visually appealing means of contributing to a more environmentally friendly future.
Efforts should be made to disseminate information about Zero Emissions Day through social media platforms, within local communities, and at workplaces. Similarly encourage friends and colleagues to partake in this initiative and make deliberate choices that align with its objectives.
The Long-Term Impact:
While the act of observing Zero Emissions Day for a single day is merely a symbolic gesture, it possesses the potential to have a lasting impact. The cultivation of awareness and mindfulness on this day can result in enduring changes in habits and behaviors. It serves as a catalyst for individuals to adopt greener choices in their daily lives and prompts organizations to embrace more sustainable practices.
By actively participating in Zero Emissions Day, KhaitanBio Energy contributes to a global movement that challenges existing norms and paves the way for a cleaner, healthier, and more sustainable planet. Let us seize this opportunity to make a positive difference and inspire others to do the same. Also, it is crucial to remember that every small step taken towards achieving zero emissions contributes to building a brighter future for generations to come.
Lignin valorization, the process of converting lignin into high-value products, offers a range of potential uses across various industries. Traditionally, lignin has considered a byproduct of biomass processing, often discarded or burned for energy generation. However, recent advancements in technology and research have uncovered the versatility of of lignin valorization, transforming it from a mere waste product into a valuable resource with many applications.
Lignin, a complex organic polymer, is one of Earth’s most abundant renewable resources. One idea to improve the effectiveness of the writing is to break up the text into shorter paragraphs to make it more readable and easier to digest. Another idea is to add more specific examples of how lignin valorization is implementing in different industries to help readers better understand its potential. Finally, it could be helpful to include some statistics or data on the environmental impact of lignin valorization and how it compares to traditional waste disposal methods or non-renewable resource utilization. It is found in the cell walls of plants and is primarily known for its role in providing structural support.
Here are some critical applications and versatility of lignin valorization:
Versatility of Lignin can transform into valuable materials with desirable properties. Lignin-derived compounds can produce bioplastics, resins, adhesives, and coatings. Also these lignin-based materials exhibit high strength, thermal stability, and UV resistance characteristics, making them suitable for applications in industries like automotive, construction, packaging, and consumer goods.
Biofuels and Chemicals:
Lignin can be a feedstock for producing biofuels and chemicals. Through depolymerization and further processing, lignin can convert into valuable compounds such as phenols, aromatics, and lignin-based monomers. These compounds can be precursors for producing biofuels, speciality chemicals, and even pharmaceuticals, reducing dependence on fossil fuels and contributing to a more sustainable and greener economy.
Lignin-based carbon fibre has emerged as a sustainable alternative to conventional carbon fibre production, which relies on petroleum-derived precursors. Lignin’s complex structure and carbon-rich composition make it an ideal candidate for carbon fibre production. Also Lignin-derived carbon fibre exhibits similar strength and lightweight properties, with the added advantage of reducing environmental impact and dependence on non-renewable resources. This has significant applications in aerospace, automotive, and sporting goods industries.
Lignin-based products is helpful in agriculture for various purposes. Lignin can use as a soil amendment, improving soil structure, water retention, and nutrient availability. It can also serve as a bio-based alternative to synthetic agrochemicals, reducing the use of harmful pesticides and fertilizers. Lignin-based films and coatings can enhance crop protection, seed germination, and post-harvest storage, contributing to sustainable agricultural practices.
Lignin-derived carbon materials show promise in energy storage applications. Similarly Lignin conversion is done into carbon materials with excellent electrochemical performance, high surface area, and good electrical conductivity. These lignin-derived carbon materials has application as electrode materials in energy storage devices like lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors. We can develop more sustainable and efficient energy storage solutions by utilizing lignin in energy storage.
Versatility of Lignin can be in water treatment applications. It is helpful as a natural adsorbent to remove pollutants and contaminants from water sources. Also Lignin-based materials can effectively capture heavy metals, dyes, and organic compounds, contributing to water and wastewater treatment process purification.
Personal Care and Cosmetics:
Lignin-derived compounds can be incorporated into personal care and cosmetic products. Lignin’s antioxidant and UV-absorbing properties make it suitable for sunscreen formulations, anti-aging creams, and hair care products. Additionally, lignin-based ingredients can enhance the sustainability profile of these products by providing a renewable and eco-friendly alternative to synthetic chemicals.
Lignin valorization presents many opportunities to utilize lignin, a previously underutilized byproduct, in various valuable applications. By harnessing the potential of lignin, we can promote sustainability, reduce waste, and develop innovative solutions across multiple industries.
Lignin Valorization and Sustainability
Lignin valorization plays a significant role in promoting sustainability in several ways:
Mainly Lignin valorization allows for the utilization of lignin, traditionally considered a waste product in biomass processing. By converting lignin into valuable products, it reduces waste generation. It minimizes the environmental impact associated with its disposal or incineration.
Renewable Resource Utilization:
Lignin is derived from renewable biomass sources such as wood, agricultural residues, and dedicated energy crops. By valorizing lignin, we tap into the potential of a renewable resource, reducing reliance on non-renewable fossil fuels and finite resources.
Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emissions:
Lignin valorization helps mitigate greenhouse gas emissions by replacing fossil fuel-derived products and processes. Using lignin-based materials, biofuels, and chemicals can reduce carbon dioxide emissions and contribute to a more sustainable and low-carbon economy.
Substitution for Petrochemicals:
Lignin valorization offers the opportunity to replace petrochemical-derived products with lignin-based alternatives. Using lignin as a feedstock for producing materials, chemicals, and fuels reduces dependence on fossil fuels. It contributes to developing a bio-based and circular economy.
The conversion of lignin into valuable products through valorization processes can enhance overall energy efficiency. By optimizing lignin processing techniques and utilizing lignin-derived materials, we can reduce energy consumption and improve the sustainability of various industries.
Lignin valorization promotes the principles of a circular economy by closing the loop on biomass utilization. Instead of considering lignin a waste, it is transformed into valuable products, creating a more sustainable and circular system. Lignin-derived materials undergoes recycling or further processing, extending their lifecycle and reducing the need for virgin materials.
Lignin-based products can be utilized in agriculture to improve soil quality, reduce synthetic agrochemicals, and enhance crop protection. Therefore we promote sustainable and environmentally friendly farming methods by integrating lignin into agricultural practices.
Lignin valorization processes, such as depolymerization and conversion into high-value products, can lead to a lower environmental impact than traditional lignin disposal methods. It helps prevent lignin from ending up in landfills or being burned, which can release harmful pollutants into the environment.
Overall, lignin valorization contributes to sustainability by reducing waste, utilizing renewable resources, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, promoting a circular economy, and improving energy efficiency. By unlocking the potential of lignin and integrating it into various industries, we can achieve a more sustainable and environmentally conscious future.
Stubble burning is a common agricultural practice that involves setting fire to crop residue left after harvest. It has been used for centuries to clear fields and prepare for the next planting season. And so it contributes to global warming and climate change to a large extend. In this blog, we will explore the impacts of stubble burning on climate change. Also why it is an overlooked contributor to global warming.
Stubble burning releases large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. These gases trap heat in the Earth’s atmosphere, causing global temperatures to rise and leading to environmental problems. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that agriculture is responsible for around 25% of global greenhouse gas emissions, with a significant portion coming from stubble burning.
The air quality in the exposed environment is seriously threatened by burning stubble. It should note that agricultural burning significantly lowers air quality since it releases gaseous and aerosol pollutants. The population under exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 is said to have the most significant impact on their health. The World Bank conducted a source apportionment study on PM2.5 for several Indian towns in 2001. They found that, in Delhi, Mumbai, Chandigarh, and Kolkata, respectively. Biomass burning contributes 9–28%, 23-29%, 24%, and 37–70% of the PM2.5 concentrations.
When comparing the burning and non-burning periods in Delhi in 2011. It was discovered that there was a 300 mg/m3 rise in PM2.5 concentration during the rice and wheat stubble-burning seasons, respectively. During the burning events, an increase in the hourly PM10 concentration. In Mandi-Gobindgarh city, Punjab, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations rose by 86.7% and 53.2% for rice and wheat burning seasons in 2015. In Patiala city, they conducted a source apportionment analysis. And found that burning stubble contributes between 100 and 200 g/m3 of PM10 to the city’s air pollution.
Burning stubble is a significant source of air pollution in India, while not the leading cause. The composite emissions come from a mix of point and nonpoint sources. According to Sharma and Dhiskit (2016), these sources include businesses, power plants, automobiles, construction, and indoor pollution. In contrast to transportation emissions, which contain 17% PM2.5, 13% PM10, 53% NOx, and 18% CO, Guttikunda and Gurjar (2012) discovered that emissions from industrial sources contain 15% CO, 14% PM2.5, and 23% SO2. However, emissions from burning stubble are far less; they only include 14% CO and 12% PM2.5.
By burning the vital nutrients in the soil, stubble burning has negative impacts on soil production. And therefore its consequences on air quality. Additionally, it elevates the soil temperature to around 42 °C, which kills or displaces the significant soil microorganisms at a depth of about 2.5 cm. This results in an additional cost for compost or fertilizer to restore soil fertility. Burning snags depletes the soil of micronutrients and nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK), three critical elements. For instance, burning rice stubble results in an annual loss of roughly 0.445 Mt of NPK. Burning wheat stubble results in an annual loss of 0.144 Mt. And burning sugarcane trash results in an annual loss of 0.84 Mt.
Stubble burning also has significant environmental consequences. And it reduces soil fertility and degrades soil health Thus decreasing crop yields and requiring more effective use of synthetic fertilizers. This, in turn, leads to further greenhouse gas emissions and more significant environmental degradation.
Burning crop residue has negative repercussions on the agriculture industry. Strong empirical support exists for the claim that air pollution impacts food output. Pollutants may have a direct or indirect impact on agricultural output. Injury to leaves, damage to grains, or heavy metal absorption are examples of direct consequences. Nitrogen oxide, for instance, can deteriorate and discolour plant tissue. Plant death might result from the production of acid rain, which has detrimental effects on soil and plants. Plants exposed to particle pollution for an extended period may develop chlorosis or bifacial necrosis. Creating conducive conditions for spreading diseases or pests is one example of an indirect effect. High concentrations of SO2 and NO2 are, for instance, conducive to the growth of insect aphids.
In recent years, air pollution-related fatality rates have been steadily rising. For instance, between 1990 and 2015, the number of fatalities related to air pollution in South Asia grew from 1.1 million to 1.2 million. Residents of the Indo-Gangetic Plain regions were said to have a life expectancy roughly seven years lower than that of residents of other Indian regions. According to reports, the IGP saw an increase in air pollution of around 65% between 1998 and 2016, and particulate matter concentrations were twice as high as the national average. According to reports, PM2.5, in particular, is the deadliest of all pollutants, and nearly 50% of India’s population is exposed to it. To a high level of PM2.5 with a concentration above the WHO limit (35 µg/m3), while about 49% of the exposed population do not have access to good healthcare (Liu et al., 2018).
Human Health and Well being
Numerous studies have shown a connection between air pollution and the risk of various health disorders, particularly in children, pregnant women, the elderly, and those with pre-existing conditions. Air pollution can cause severe neurological, cardiovascular, and respiratory conditions and skin and eye discomfort. It may have fatal consequences in certain circumstances, especially if the exposed victim already has respiratory issues. In certain situations, long-term exposure to high levels of air pollution can result in irreversible health damage, such as the onset of lung conditions, including cancer, emphysema, COPD, bronchitis, and capacity loss. Farmers who have been exposed to stubble smoke complain of eye and lung discomfort and have incurred high medical costs
Impacts on Economic growth
Air pollution negatively affects a nation’s economy and its adverse effects on health and the environment. Because a nation’s economic and technical advancements determine how well air pollution is managed, it follows that rising pollution has a variety of adverse effects on that nation’s economy. Due to the rise in air pollution over the past few years, Delhi has seen a 25–30% decline in visitors visiting the city. In 2018, the cost of air pollution to India’s economy ranged from 4.5 to 7.7% of GDP, and when extrapolated to 2060, the figure increased to around 15%. Air pollution also reduces workers’ productivity in other areas by making them ill and difficult to see.
According to the World Bank, in 2013, air pollution cost the global economy $225 billion, with poorer nations bearing the lion’s share of the burden. The Indian government estimated that managing air pollution and providing for its well-being would cost around $14 billion annually.
The impact of stubble burning on climate change is particularly acute in developing countries such as India and China, where it is still a common agricultural practice. Burning crop residues in these countries contribute to air pollution, smog, and health problems for the local population. It also exacerbates climate change, as the large amounts of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere increase global warming.
Due to the release of greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4, which can potentially contribute to global warming, emissions from stubble fires directly impact weather and climate. According to statistics, the agricultural industry contributes between 17% and 32% of the world’s total yearly greenhouse gas emissions. In 2017, burning crop stubble resulted in emissions of 171.37 Tg of CO2, 0.706 Tg of CH4, and 0.073 Tg of N2O. India produces 658.823 Tg of CO2, equivalent or roughly 12.2% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions. According to reports, the bad air quality and altered weather patterns contributed to India losing around 36% of its anticipated annual wheat yield in 2018.
Despite these impacts, stubble burning remains a common practice in many parts of the world. This is partly due to the need for more affordable and sustainable alternatives and cultural and historical traditions. However, there are solutions available that can help to reduce the impact of stubble burning on climate change.
One solution is to encourage the adoption of conservation agriculture practices, such as zero-tillage and crop rotation, which reduce the need for stubble burning and help to build soil health. These practices can also help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by sequestering carbon in the soil.
Another solution is to invest in renewable energy sources such as biogas and biofuels, which can be produced from crop residues and other agricultural waste. This reduces greenhouse gas emissions and provides clean energy for local communities.
In conclusion, stubble burning is an overlooked contributor to global warming and climate change, and it has significant impacts the environment, human health, and agricultural productivity. However, solutions available can help reduce the effect of stubble burning and promote sustainable farming practices. By investing in these solutions, we can help to mitigate the impacts of climate change and create a more sustainable future for all.
Growing populations and rapid economic growth influence India’s rising energy consumption. India’s third-highest consumer of final energy is the road transport industry, which is virtually entirely dependent on petroleum oil. Nearly one-fifth of the nation’s import expenditure—more than four out of every five percent of crude petroleum—comes from imports. In 2018, India contributed around 7% of the world’s energy-related CO2 emissions, of which the transport industry was responsible for 13%. Alternative fuels have been researching in India for approximately 20 years to decarbonize the road transportation industry and solve energy security, efficiency, and air quality difficulties.
Electricity and biofuels can provide significant prospects for the near-term decarbonization of the road transportation industry. Hydrogen and compressed natural gas both have the potential to be essential players in this area throughout the short, medium, and long term.
Options and current situation for transportation’s alternative fuels
Alternative fuels, including biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel), CNG, methanol, electricity, hydrogen, etc., have been considering for development and use in India among the various choices. The Government of India (GoI)’s “Auto Fuel Policy, 2003” made several recommendations, including the use of CNG/LPG in cities with higher vehicular penetration, accelerating the development of battery electric, hydrogen, and fuel cell vehicles (FCV), and developing sustainable biofuel production technologies based on locally available resources as well as vehicles for their use.
Recent changes in the power mix of India, the evolution of shared mobility solutions that maximize the use of expensive transportation assets, and improvements in battery chemistries have all contributed to the favourable environment for the growth and adoption of electric mobility. The following sections contain information on the governmental actions implemented, particularly in India, to promote the development of various alternative fuels for use in road transportation and the advancements made compared to international successes.
Ethanol and biodiesel are the two main liquid biofuels produced and used worldwide. While corn, sugar cane, and other crops are primarily using to make ethanol, animal and vegetable oils, including used cooking oil (UCO) from kitchens, are using to make biodiesel. In addition, the production of hydro-treated vegetable oil (HVO) and hydro-treated esters and fatty acids (HEFA) from the same feedstocks used to make biodiesel for use as a diesel alternative is growing. Additionally, it anticipates that between 2023 and 2025, the average global biofuel production will increase to 182 BL.
Development in India
The GoI mandated the usage of exclusively non-edible oilseeds for biodiesel production to stop the gap between the demand and supply for edible vegetable oil in the nation from getting even more comprehensive. By adding ” additional states to the program in 2006, the requirement for the provision of E5 was expanding to a broader geographic spread of the nation. Due to the scarcity of ethanol, India experienced difficulties with its biofuel initiative, much like many other nations worldwide. India’s National Policy on Biofuels, enacted in 2009, permits the purchase of ethanol made from non-food feedstocks such as molasses, cellulose, and lignocellulose materials. By the end of 2017, the plan is to achieve the aim of 20% ethanol and biodiesel admixing in gasoline and diesel, respectively.
Compressed natural gas
In its compressed form, known as CNG is another form of alternative fuel. Natural gas mainly consists of methane, may be utilized in three-wheeled auto-rickshaws, vehicles, and municipal buses, and CNG pressure might be increased to 250 bar. The usage of CNG as an automotive fuel has advanced, and it is currently prevalent in many nations. CNG provides advantages over other fossil fuels in decreased CO, CO2, NOx, and particulate matter
emissions. Its widespread availability, compatibility with spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI) engines, and inexpensive operating costs influence its acceptance.
As of December 31, 2019, over 28.54 million CNG-powered cars were operating worldwide, refuelling at 33,383 stations in more than 85 nations. According to the highest percentage of CNG-fueled automobiles, China, Iran, India, Pakistan, and Argentina are the top five nations.
Development in India
The adoption of a sizable number of CNG cars in India was possible by the local capability to make NG vehicles. The GoI’s favourable policy framework has also made it easier for people to acquire CNG automobiles. As of March 31, 2020, these initiatives have resulted in a combined stock of around 3.38 million CNG-fueled cars and the construction of 2207 CNG refuelling stations throughout 20 Indian states and four centrally managed territories. During 2019–20, these vehicles accounted for about 6.7% of all NG consumption. By 2030, 33 million CNG-powered cars and 10,000 CNG refuelling stations will be in India. Including imported LNG (33,680 MMSCM), India consumed 63,932 M metric standard cubic meters (MMSCM) of NG in 2019–20
The anaerobic digestion of various wastes/biomass resources from agricultural, dairy, municipal sewage treatment facilities, solid waste from cities, etc., can result in the purified and compressed form of compact biogas (CBG). CBG is another alternative fuel for achieving dercarbonisation. It then mixes with NG or CNG or used as a CNG or LNG replacement to lessen reliance on imports. Regarding composition, energy content, and other characteristics, CBG is comparable to commercial NG and has a methane proportion above 0.95. India can produce 62 MTA of CBG from a variety of resources. 5,000 CBG system expects to install nationwide in stages by 2025 under the GoI SATAT program, which began in 2018. These systema anticipates to produce 15 MTA of CBG or around about 30% of NG consumption of 48.65 MTA in the country during 2019–20
Liquefied Petroleum Gas(LPG)
LPG, a propane and butane combination commonly referred to as “autogas” in some countries, may also used as a transportation fuel when not mixed. It is a fuel with comparatively low carbon emissions. Auto LPG is the world’s third most used automobile fuel, powering more than 27 million cars. Additionally, it is cost-effective for the user and extends engine life while lowering maintenance costs. With roughly 71,000 dispensing outlets, over 70 countries is using auto LPG.
Development in India
The Auto Fuel Policy, 2003 of the GoI proposed, among other measures, the use of these gaseous fuels in cities with a more significant population of automobiles after realizing the advantages associated with alternative fuels such as CNG and LPG. Additionally, in 2014, the GoI released the Auto Fuel Vision and Policy 2025, which provided a roadmap for a swift transition to the new emission standards specified in BS-IV throughout India.
Despite offering the user economic benefits and being more environmentally friendly than gasoline and diesel, auto LPG has only achieved limited success in India due to unfavourable policy frameworks for its expansion. Additionally, few auto LPG vehicles are made in Indi. And retrofitting auto LPG kits is preferred because this market is unregulated.
Resources, including coal, NG, and biomass that can create syngas, is using to make methanol. Methanol is an efficient fuel that emits less NOx and PM pollutants than gasoline and no SOx emissions because it contains no Sulphur. For usage as an automobile fuel, it then combines with gas or used as a complete replacement. Methanol, however, is more corrosive than gasoline, may require significant infrastructure improvements for its storage and delivery, and is extremely dangerous to people if eaten. 2019 saw an estimated 98.281 MT of methanol produced globally. In which 19.777 MT was utilizing as an alternative fuel for blending with gasoline and combustion, manufacturing of biodiesel and dimethyl ether, and in fuel cells.
Development in India
India is still in the early stages of methanol production; in 2018–19, domestic production was just approximately 0.27 MT, compared to the installed production capacity of 0.47 MT. In 2019, it imported 2.3 MT of methanol. The majority of Indian methanol production now relies on imported NG. Thus, the country may use its substantial coal deposits to produce methanol to blend with gasoline or completely replace it. The ability to produce methanol might be increased using biomass, stranded gas, and high-ash coal from India. Coal India Ltd. is now putting up a factory using coal to produce 0.676 MT of methanol. In Assam, a trial program for cooking using canister-based methanol started in 2018.
Electricity for transportation
The two primary elements of the modern energy system are electricity and liquid fossil fuels, with electricity supplying very dense energy globally for various uses, including lighting, propulsion, refrigeration, communication, and computation. Electricity is a very efficient and clean energy source after the generating stage. Over 90% of electricity is using efficiently in motors to produce rotary motion for various everyday applications. Because of these characteristics, electricity is a crucial energy vector for movement.
The introduction of ICE-based cars and a lack of adequate infrastructure for power distribution and battery recharging, including the time required for recharging, were some of the causes that led to the end of the first golden era of EVs. In the past ten years, interest in EVs has once again risen due to concerns about vehicular emissions, climate change, and energy security being brought to the attention of policymakers and automakers. While the switch to electric mobility is still in its early stages in some nations, the adoption of EVs is accelerating in some of the world’s largest markets for personal vehicles due to falling battery prices and expanding EV charging infrastructure. Of different kinds, including cars, buses, taxis and shared vehicles, light commercial vehicles (LCV), two/three-wheelers and heavy-duty vehicles with short-range requirements such as urban deliveries.
Development in India
When Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd hired to build an “Electra van” with 18 seats for usage in Delhi and other major cities, the introduction of electric mobility in India officially began in the early 1980s. About 200 of these vehicles developed and put on display. Eddy Current Control (India) Ltd. created the first electric vehicle in India in 1993. After that, electric three-wheelers/rickshaws, e-bikes, and a tiny electric automobile (Reva) get developed and used in 1996.
The National Electric Mobility Mission Plan (NMEPP) 2020 was created in 2012, and the Ministry of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises, Government of India, launched the first phase of Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of (Hybrid &) Electric Vehicles (FAMHEV) in 2015 , . With a budget of US$ 140.7 million, Phase-I of FAMHEV (also known as FAME-I in India) carried out from April 2015 to March 2019. Following that, FAMHEV-II (or FAME – II) launched in April 2019 for three years with a total allocation of US$ 135.86 million to promote e-2 Wheelers, e-3 Wheelers, e-4 Wheelers, 4W vigorous hybrids, and e-buses as well as the establishment of charging infrastructure. The amount of financial support for EVs depends on the battery’s capacity.
In light of its potential to play a significant role in decarbonizing the transportation, industrial, and household sectors and thereby offering solutions to climate change-related issues with which the entire world has been grappling in recent years, hydrogen has been attracting a lot of attention from policymakers, environmentalists, researchers, automobile companies, and others. The most prevalent and lightest element in nature is hydrogen. Among all available fuels, hydrogen has the highest gravimetric energy content (120.7 MJ/kg), 2.7 times more calorific than gasoline. Additionally, it is environmentally friendly because it only emits water vapour when it is being used. Hydrogen has a lengthy history of use in energy-related applications.
Since 1975, the demand for pure hydrogen increased more than three times and predicted to reach more than 70 MT in 2018. Because it can lower GHG emissions, provide energy independence, and enhance the ambient air quality in the areas that choose to use it. Whereas Hydrogen is seen as an appealing energy source for vehicular applications.
Development in India
Since about 30 years ago, the Government of India has supported a wide range of R&D activities in the nation, realizing the significance of hydrogen for supplying the energy needs of the transportation sector and for distributed power generation. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE), GoI, created a National Hydrogen Energy Roadmap (NHER) in 2006, intending to accelerate the research and commercialization of hydrogen-based technologies in India. NHER focused on projects based on public-private partnerships to help with resource creation.
The primary goals were to outline the development, testing, and deployment of technologies for using hydrogen energy in the transportation and power-generating sectors and to make it possible to build the necessary infrastructure throughout the nation. It entailed concentrating on the growth of various links throughout the complete hydrogen energy value chain, from its production to its availability for ultimate use and resolving concerns linked to its safety and standards. Only a few sets of two-wheelers, three-wheelers, catalytic combustion cooking systems, small power generating systems, hydrogen internal combustion engines (HICE), and FC buses have been developing. These have only undergone limited field testing. Activities for developing hydrogen-fuelled vehicles (HFV), including hydrogen-compressed natural gas (H-CNG) and hydrogen-diesel dual fuel vehicles, got momentum in India after NHER came into existence.
The energy industry is experiencing a worldwide change. Renewables’ costs have plummeted significantly over the last decade—solar power up to 80% and wind power by roughly 40%—making them economically competitive with traditional fuels like coal and natural gas in most global markets. As a result, renewables are rapidly expanding: in 2018, they accounted for the vast majority of new power-generation capacity. In most markets, they are now the most cost-effective way to expand marginal capacity. Furthermore, for decarbonizing the power system renewables are crucial to any country’s goal to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.
However, neither the sun’s nor the wind’s direction can changed. As a result, unlike baseload power facilities powered by coal, gas, or nuclear energy, wind and solar output cannot be continuously matched to demand. That raises a problem. Municipalities, states, countries, and utility companies all need affordable, dependable power. Many people have also established objectives to decarbonizing their electricity systems. How do they manage both?
For considerable amounts of renewable energy to integrate, flexibility (the capacity to control the erratic nature of non-dispatchable electricity) such as wind and solar power is essential. The real-time synchronization of supply and demand may achieved in various ways. For instance, gas and coal power plants may shift output up or down to balance wind and solar energy output variations, and production may balance geographically via transmission lines. Demand-side management programs and well-designed incentives can persuade people to change their consumption patterns.
Decarbonizing the electricity system to between 50 and 60 per cent by 2040
In most markets, achieving 50 to 60 percent decarbonization with little to no additional expenditure is possible beyond what is dictated by just rational economic behaviour. Decarbonization is frequently the least expensive choice since solar, wind, and storage costs—three crucial components in all deep-decarbonization scenarios—have fallen so far and so quickly.
Midrange storage (four to eight hours) works well with the sun’s 24-hour cycle. “Solar-plus storage” refers to the ability to store energy during the day. And release it at night to ensure a consistent supply of electricity . In reality, wind and solar energy frequently work in tandem since the former is stronger at night and during the winter, when the latter is. Therefore, solar and wind resources markets are better equipped to handle intermittency.
The performance of the electricity system normally wouldn’t be significantly impact reaching this degree of decarbonization. We project that 2 to 5 percent of the electricity generated would curtailed, and almost all of it undergoes various utilizations. Individual fossil-fuel plants’ utilization levels, or the proportion of time a plant produces power, would likewise not considerably changed, remaining at 50 to 60 percent. However, some assets will decommissioned and replaced when more affordable renewables come online, and no new transmission would likely required. Simply put, few changes would need to be made to the electricity system to reach a 50–60% decarbonizing goal.
Decarbonizing the electricity system to between 80 to 90 per cent by 2040
It will often cost more, take longer, and need more market-specific initiatives to reach 80 to 90 percent decarbonization. Even if there is no need for new technologies, storage would have to utilized for longer periods, and demand may need to controlled more strictly. This may done by actively managing building heating, cooling, and industrial load shifting. Additional transmission interconnections may require for certain markets to combine renewable resources and share baseload resources over a greater geographic region.
The system would seem considerably different from how it does now at this level of decarbonization. Because so much renewable energy is producinig to fulfil demand during reduced output, we expect a 7 to 10% curtailment. Fossil-fuel plants are used less frequently (20–35%) as renewable energy sources gain popularity. However, many are maintaining on standby to supply demand when renewable energy sources cannot. The expenses of decarbonization at the 80 to 90 percent level vary greatly. There may be a slight decrease in system expenses (1 to 2 percent annually) in markets with higher than average power costs, and there may be gains in other, less expensive markets.
Decarbonizing the electricity system to between 100 per cent by 2040
Landfill gas and biomethane are examples of net-zero-carbon renewable biofuels. However, due to their high cost and finite availability, they can often only partially contribute to the solution.
stands for carbon capture, usage, and storage. With CCUS, greenhouse gas emissions from burning fossil fuels have applications in various processes like better oil recovery, or safely stored in deep rock formations. Although costly, CCUS is effective. Finding and implementing technology advancements and establishing scale efficiencies will be necessary to lower the cost. Additionally, as CCUS cannot collect every carbon molecule, other technologies will still require to achieve complete decarbonization.
It stands for bioenergy carbon capture and storage. According to a method known as BECCS, carbon-neutral biomass, such as wood pellets and agricultural waste, undergo burning for fuel while the CO2 emissions that occur either captured or stored. The end outcome is negative emissions, or removing GHGs from the atmosphere. Biomass can be ramped up, but it is unclear how much because the technology is still relatively new. One benefit is the ability to convert old coal facilities into BECCS plants, which lowers capital costs and uses already-existing linkages.
Power to gas to power. Using surplus electricity, P2G2P technology creates hydrogen that may stored in the gas network and then transformed back into power. The “clean gas” produced by P2G2P technology permits storage for weeks or even months. However, it is both costly and ineffective. The initial ten megawatts of generated power undergo tr6ansformation into usable power for consumption, roughly three megawatts remain. However, the flexibility offered by P2G2P technology might go a long way toward incorporating sporadic renewables if there is a demand for clean gas beyond the power industry.
DAC remove CO2 from air. It is another low-emission technology that might utilize to reduce the final few percentage points of electricity that is carbon-intensive. Although the technology has proven, it require enormous energy expenditures to capture, isolate, and sequester CO2. Additionally, doing so is highly costly. Our research typically indicates that it is not a component of the answer for complete decarbonization.
Countries, cities and companies are increasingly committing to reaching net zero by 2050 – removing as much CO2 as they produce to limit global warming. By definition, net zero emissions means reducing greenhouse gas emissions to the lowest possible level, with any remaining emissions reabsorbed by the atmosphere by means of oceans and forests.
The energy sector is critical to addressing the global climate crisis as it is the primary source of worldwide emissions. Governments have made numerous commitments and efforts to tackle the causes of global warming. Yet, since the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was signed in 1992, CO2 emissions from energy and industry have increased by 60%. The number of international pledges and initiatives is rising. However, they are still far short of what is required to keep global temperature increases to 1.5 °C and prevent the worst effects of climate change. The goal to Net Zero by 2050 Roadmap, which identifies more than 400 milestones for what must be done and when to decarbonize the global economy within three decades, offers a roadmap to accomplish this challenging and vital goal. A normative IEA scenario called Net Zero Emissions by 2050 (NZE) shows how the global energy sector can achieve net zero CO2 emissions by 2050, with advanced economies achieving net zero emissions ahead of others. Short- and medium-term emission reduction goals, consistent with the Paris Agreement, are set all over the globe to eliminate the worst impacts of climate change this decade.
The importance of corporate Net Zero targets
To achieve this, we must balance what we harvest from the environment with the greenhouse gases we release into the atmosphere.
So as to prevent the harmful effects of climate change, 197 nations pledged to maintain temperature increases well below 1.5°C under the Paris Agreement in 2015.
In its report from 2018, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) concluded that “global net human-caused carbon dioxide emissions would need to fall by about 45% from 2010 levels by 2030, reaching net zero around 2050. pooiiz
Accordingly, any remaining emissions brought on by human activity that cannot be reduced must be offset by removing CO2 from the atmosphere.
Khaitan on the way of Net Zero target.
An increasing number of countries, cities and organizations have pledged to reach this goal within 2050. Thus turning the net zero promise into a mainstream act. Khaitan bioenergy aims on net zero and decarbonisation by being part of organizations that support target. The initiative “Net Zero Tracker” has mapped out the number of net zero pledges of countries, cities, regions, and organizations. The focus is to get an impression of how significant an impact these entities may have on reaching the target. According to the reports, 90% of the worldwide economy is committed to achieving net zero. Out of 2000 of the largest publicly traded companies worldwide, the Net Zero Tracker has identified 683 with target.
Net Zero targets by various corporates
On an organizational level, the quality of the net zero targets varies. While some companies have set ambitious targets for deep emission cuts, others have set modest emissions reduction targets. Mainly lacking detailed abatement planning. The variation in the quality and structure of targets makes it harder to compare companies’ net zero targets and their implications.
The Net Zero Standard
The net-zero commitments need to translate into quantifiable goals and plans for which businesses can held responsible. Net zero aims are now more transparent, comparable, and likely to be of high quality. And also it succeed by being in line with standards. One such standard that provides substance and direction to targets is the SBTi’s (Science Based Targets Initiative) Net Zero Standard. The SBTi Net Zero Standard offers a comprehensive, common net zero concept grounded in science. The standard is the first of its kind in the world to give businesses a way to contribute. Also to making the world economy reach the goal.
Corporate net zero targets vary in three ways: the target’s boundaries, the mitigating measures selected, and the deadline for achieving the target. Aiming for significant emission reductions in its scopes 1, 2, and 3 of at least 90% by 2050 . Also halving their emissions by 2030, businesses to comply with the Net Zero Standard must set both long and short-term goals.
According to the Net Zero guiding principles, there are two requirements for achieving net zero and keeping warming to 1.5°C:
Achieve value-chain emission reductions on a scale. It is consistent with the level of mitigation reached in paths that keep global warming to 1.5°C with no or minimal level.
To permanently remove an equivalent amount of atmospheric Carbon dioxide. Thus to offset the effects of any remaining sources of residual emissions.
Corporate net zero targets are crucial for businesses to demonstrate that the private sector can advance the fight against climate change. Pledges for net zero are becoming more common, but setting a science-based goal demonstrates accountability.
Refinery Carbon Reduction
The following strategic actions should follow to reduce direct CO2 emissions at oil refineries:
Improvements in energy effeciency considered by many as a cost-effective mitigation method. Although they may only be able to reduce emissions by 5-10%. The rebound effect, a phenomenon that would somewhat offset the advantages. It has also been suggesting as a possible outcome of increased energy efficiency made possible by technological advancements. Increases in energy efficiency cannot primarily drive the decarbonization of the refining sector.
Carbon Capture and Storage
Since the 1970s, the oil and gas refineries has pioneered using CCS technology. It mainly focus for enhanced oil recovery (EOR), establishing a foundation for its implementation in other CO2 mitigation applications. There has been extensive research on using CCS technology to lower emissions in refineries. The general view is that collecting CO2 from larger combined emission stacks is feasible.
The forecasts include CO2 capture from bigger emission sources. It may be steam methane reformers, fluid catalytic converters, crude atmospheric and vacuum distillation units, and power plant stacks. According to their assessment, the CO2 capture and compression system comes in second place. With a cost of 47%, followed by interconnectors. It retrofits at 38% and utility plants operating on natural gas at 15% of the total cost of CO2 avoidance. On the other end, several emissions from boilers, heaters, or furnaces dispersed around a refining site are more complex to control because of their lower CO2 concentrations and flow rates, as well as the possibilities for contaminants. The economics of CO2 capture from various diverse point sources is still poorly understandable. Thus site-specific assessments need for a more accurate estimation.
Fuel shifting is another important to choose the appropriate approach considering fuel combustion contributes to about 70% of a refinery’s emissions. Switching to biomass could produce a significant environmental burden and potentially disrupt the biomass industry, despite being appealing in terms of CO2 reduction and cost. Also, because of administrative and security concerns, direct-fired heaters and boilers utilizing solid biomass are considering as impractical in oil refineries.
On the contrary line, gaseous fuels, specifically for the combined heat and power (CHP) plant, could function as drop-in fuels without the requirements for extensive refinery operations restructuring. Although there is an anticipation that the operation of hydrogen-fired boilers will be as stable as that of their natural gas equivalents, such boilers have not undergo testing in a manufacturing environment. Thus raising the question about the type of heat transfer and the degree of gas emissions. The same is for electric heating if operating costs dramatically lowered and the technology demonstrated to be dependable.
The worldwide energy sector in 2050 is based mainly on renewables, with solar the single largest source of supply. All governments must have a single, constant objective while collaborating closely with corporations, investors, and citizens to bring about this cleaner, healthier future.
Electricity is a beneficial alternative to power several modes of transportation to make them more environmentally friendly. Since an electric car emits no harmful pollutants, it lowers greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Also, this would aid in tackling the planet’s climate concerns. Also, these environmental crisis has prompted the government to take the lead in making significant changes over the past years. According to a report published in 2021, the transportation sector, which serves as an economic infrastructure for travel and freight, accounts for 25% of total energy consumption. Hence, e-mobility is one such initiative to reduce the consumption of fossil fuel derivatives.
The proposal is to enable automobiles’ electric propulsion by using electric powertrain technology, in-vehicle information, connectivity, and connected infrastructures. Plug-in hybrids and fully electric vehicles use powertrain technology to convert hydrogen fuel into electricity.
There are more types of electric vehicles than e-cars, e-scooters, e-bikes, e-motorcycles, e-buses, and e-trucks. They all have a battery and charging systems, are powered entirely or partly by electricity, and primarily obtain their energy from the grids through distribution networks that follow set standards. Thus, combining all these aspects completes the ecosystem for electric mobility. Corporate fuel economy, pollution standards, and market expectations for lower operating costs drive e-mobility initiatives.
Different types of e-mobility vehicles
Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)
BEV is commonly known as a pure electric vehicle. This type of electric vehicle has an extensive rechargeable battery on-board that provides all the energy the car needs to propel forward. Examples include the Tesla Model 3, Chevy Bolt, and Nissan Leaf.
Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV):
HEVs are series hybrids or parallel hybrids with engines and electric motors. Where the engine powered by fuel, while batteries power the motor. Hybrid electric vehicles are powered by an internal combustion engine and one or more electric motors, which use energy stored in batteries. Hybrid electric vehicle batteries are charged through regenerative braking and the internal combustion engine. The extra power provided by the electric motor can allow for a smaller engine. The battery can also power auxiliary loads and reduce engine idling when stopped. Together, these features result in better fuel economy without sacrificing performance.
Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV):
PHEVs, also a series hybrid, have an engine and a motor. You can pick between conventional fuel (such as gasoline) and alternative fuel (such as bio-diesel). A rechargeable battery pack can also power it. External charging is possible for the battery.
Contributors in e-mobility sector
Mobility sector combines a group of stakeholders who is essential for the success of electro mobility system. The efficient and effective functionality of these stakeholders ensures the smooth functioning of the system.
Manufacturers of EVs and accessories:
An electric vehicle is built and operated in large part by automakers (also known as auto OEMs) and other businesses including battery manufacturers, EV accessory manufacturers, maintenance service providers, etc.
Charge station manufacturers:
The companies that fall under this category are ChargePoint Inc., ABB, Tesla, Engie, AeroVironment, Schneider Electric, Siemens, Efacec, Bosch, etc. They develop the hardware and software for the charging stations in accordance with different standards and guidelines. However, in addition to selling their gear and software to charge point operators, several manufacturers also function as CPOs and EMPs/MSPs.
Charge Point Operator (CPO):
The administration and technical facets of the charging station are under the control of the charge point operator (CPO). Today, there are numerous charge point operators in every country who offer a variety of functions and station designs. These are just a few of the duties that a typical charge point operator might have: Installation, operation, maintenance, and servicing of charge stations are all technically based. Billing input to EMP, accessibility, authorization for roaming, etc. are administrative aspects.
E-Mobility Service Providers:
E-mobility service providers make it feasible for electric vehicle users to use the infrastructure for charging (EMSP or EMP). Many EMP may engage in arrangements with charge point operators (CPO) and provide end consumers with e-mobility even when they do not own the charging stations. With the end-user (EV driver), E-Mobility providers (EMP) enter into a contract, offer to charge tags or RFID cards, and take care of the services’ billing.
Grid Operator (DSO):
The DSOs are the local grid operators (Distribution System operators). They are the ones who “supply” power to homes, workplaces, or public streets; they develop, operate, and maintain public distribution grids.
Transmission System Operator (TSO):
TSOs and DSOs work closely together to maintain the grid balanced. The TSO is responsible for maintaining a stable grid load in each neighborhood. They work with DSO to maintain “demand” and balance power distribution. They also configure profiles to reduce supply in each location as needed.
Power generation / Utility Supplier:
Utility infrastructure powers the charging stations. These businesses produce energy often; some may even own different power plants (such as wind, solar, nuclear, hydro, etc.), yet, some may buy power from other producers.
The ecosystem’s most important stakeholders are government representatives, decision-makers, and regulatory agencies. In addition to industry measures like “subsidies” to promote the market, they also set laws controlling the obligations of each of the stakeholders above.
India’s perspective on e-mobility
Most people in India belong to either middle-class families or are part of the poverty line. But in the past few years, most people have owned a car. All the cities in India are overpopulated with vehicles. Due to this reason, air pollution is increasing irrepressible. For example, Delhi, the country’s capital city, has shown the air quality index to be toxic and increasingly deteriorates daily. As scientists claim, if this kind of effect is not managed appropriately and continues for an extended period, humans would be bound to carry their oxygen tanks for survival. It is believed that introducing electric vehicles can resolve this problem to a certain extent.
Furthermore, there is a common misperception that EV two-wheelers are more expensive than their classic ICE equivalents. While the upfront cost of an EV may be higher than that of an ICE, the evaluation is complete once we consider the total cost of ownership (TCO). It includes the purchase price, operating costs (fuel/charging fees and maintenance), and resale value modifications. Climate change, rising fuel prices, and urban transportation challenges are all threatening to alter the future of mobility. E-mobility, to a considerable extent, addresses all of these difficulties. While the first electric vehicle was launched in India in 2001, the fundamental shift from internal combustion engine (ICE) based vehicles to electric vehicles (EV) started only in the last five years. According to NITI Aayog and Rocky Mountain Institute, India’s EV market could touch US$152.2 billion by 2030.
How successful is the e-mobility project
Pollution from transportation is especially significant in cities, where many people and vehicles move within a small geographical space. As a result, air pollution has become a more prominent policy priority. E-mobility reduces NOX and soot emissions in cities. With better and more environmentally friendly public transportation, more walking and bicycling infrastructure, and improved electric car infrastructure, cities also have opportunities to rethink traffic.
For prospective consumers, electric automobiles are pretty intriguing. We may anticipate additional improvements in the field as established automakers concentrate on e-mobility. These businesses may advance EV adoption by utilising their dealership networks, business information, and R&D skills. The champions of e-mobility will be two-wheelers, while four-wheelers may still need some improvement before the TCO of EVs becomes more profitable. In conclusion, India’s future for e-mobility is quite bright despite infrastructure and demand issues.
For decades, sustainable mobility has been a pressing issue. There are now numerous alternatives to the traditional modes of transportation. There are electric vehicles, carpooling, hydrogen-powered buses, and countless other options. All these new alternative methods significantly impact the reduction in the release of harmful pollutants. However, biofuel-powered vehicles, also known as flex-fuel vehicles, provide more drastic results by replacing the use of fossil fuels. In India, Maruti Suzuki, Toyota, and Hyundai have agreed to launch cars with multiple fuel compatibility, which would be possible in the coming years.
Flex Fuel Vehicles (FFV) have engine flexibility with different fuel compatibility. These vehicles support many single blends or fuel combinations and can support more than one fuel type. But the standard compatibility is flex fuels. It consists of gasoline-ethanol blends up to 85% ethanol or fuel based on methanol. E85 is a combination of a gasoline-ethanol mix based on the ethanol percentage.
Flexible Fuel Vehicles consist of an internal combustion engine (ICE) that generates power with the help of heating the trapped air and thus burning any fuel present. As said, It runs majorly on the E85 blend; the blend percentage of ethanol can be 15% to 85%. The rate of combination used can depend upon geography, availability or the seasons. The consumer needs to know their vehicle’s capacity and fuel compatibility.
FFVs are similar to conventional gasoline-only vehicles, except for an ethanol-compatible fuel system and a different powertrain calibration. While higher ethanol levels generally reduce fuel economy and many FFVs have improved acceleration performance when operating on higher ethanol blends.
Flex Fuel Vehicles support sustainably produced fuel blends. As already mentioned, ethanol (E85) is a renewable fuel which doesn’t adversely affect the planet compared to fossil fuels when burned. It releases significantly less smoke and doesn’t release toxic greenhouse gases (GHG) into the atmosphere.
Any combination of fuel is compatible with a flex fuel vehicle as it has sensors that understand the fuel type and adjust its combustion process accordingly. It allows the consumer flexibility to fill their fuel tanks based on availability.
The sustainability and availability of resources for extracting flex fuels ease the country’s struggle for oil imports. Hence, This encourages every nation to be self-reliant on the available resources for flex-fuel.
The engine performance of FFV is still arguable. But current studies have shown the results of better engine performance and the ability to burn pure and cleaner fuels such as ethanol and methanol blends. Zinc, brass, copper, lead, and aluminum are incompatible with storing pure blends as there is a risk of corrosion.
Benefits on Taxes
There would-be many tax benefits for FFVs consumers also could claim tax credits after purchase. Also, In the long run, there is an elimination of tax obligations as well.
Flex-fuel can be produced sustainably using corn and sugar, which is mass produced but has a drawback. The inability to use crops made for flex-fuel production for other purposes could increase the cost of animal feed. In addition to being susceptible to plant pathogens, corn can be negatively impacted by weather events like floods and droughts.
Potential Engine Damage
Everyone wants to give their vehicle the best care possible. Unfortunately, ethanol is mild cleaning solvent which readily absorbs dirt, potentially eroding and harming the engine in the long run. Thus, it is to be maintained on time to time basis.
Gas mileage is one of the main issues with flex-fuel vehicles. While some experts claim that flex-fuel vehicles get similar gas mileage to conventional cars, others assert that they get worse gas mileage. While ethanol does increase a car’s octane rating, it has less energy than gasoline. So, yes, using ethanol will result in lower miles per gallon. But because ethanol is less expensive than regular gas, the savings should compensate for the reduced mileage.
Limited Number of Gas Stations
Gas stations are less likely to stock flex fuel because it isn’t as cost-effective as regular gasoline. Ethanol is currently only available at a small fraction of gas stations nationwide, but the situation will be different in the coming years.
Facts and Figures
Comparisons of tailpipe emissions for E85 versus gasoline of flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs)
The tailpipe emissions of E85 from flex-fuel vehicles (FFVs) and regular gasoline have been compared in various ways, with varying results. Based on actual measurements of five FFVs made with a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS), additional chassis dynamometer data, and projections from the Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model, differences in FFV fuel use and tailpipe emission rates are quantified for E85 versus gasoline. Despite average rates being lower on E85 than gasoline, an individual FFV may have higher nitrogen oxide (NOx) or carbon monoxide (CO) emission rates due to inter-vehicle variability. Comparing the tailpipe emission rates of E85 and gasoline is sensitive to vehicle-specific power, according to PEMS data (VSP). For example, while CO emission rates are lower in all VSP modes, they are proportionally lower at higher VSP. Driving cycles with a high power demand are better for CO emissions but worse for NOx.
The vehicle’s fuel cycle and tailpipe emissions were considered in a life cycle inventory. Although E85 for FFVs emits less nitrogen oxide (NOx) from the tailpipe than gasoline, this is advantageous for the communities where the vehicles are used. The life cycle NOx emissions are higher due to higher NOx emissions during fuel production. According to dynamometer data, the average difference in tailpipe emissions between E85 and gasoline is 23% for NOx and 30% for CO, and there isn’t a noticeable difference for hydro-carbons (HC). Emissions from fuel production typically occur in rural areas, and there are no significant variations in overall hydro-carbon emissions.
The wide range of vehicle-to-vehicle fluctuation explains why earlier studies with smaller sample sizes yield inconsistent results. E85 significantly reduces nitrogen oxide (NOx) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions from tailpipes compared to gasoline, which may be advantageous for controlling ozone air quality in NOx-restricted areas. Comparisons of the FFV tailpipe emissions of gasoline and E85 are sensitive to driving style and power demand.
Future of Flex Fuel Vehicle
There are arguments for and against flex-fuel vehicles. However, using ethanol as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly fuel source makes way to switch toward a flex-fuel car in the future. There are many benefits to using flex fuels and flex-fuel-supported transportation vehicles. Since technology is ever-evolving, it is impossible to predict what flex-fuel cars and more cutting-edge innovations might appear over the coming years.
It might not be easy to figure out Flex Fuel vehicles. However, a few telltale signs in flex-fuel vehicles differentiate them from regular cars. Examples involve yellow gas caps or a yellow ring where the manufacturer’s fuel nozzle goes on flex-fuel vehicles. Other cars can use flex-fuel due to the labels on their fuel doors. In a nutshell, using alternative renewable fuels and sustainably powered vehicles is the future that can save time and money and also contribute to reversing the adverse effects of global warming.
Climate change is one of the defining issues of our generation. The cause of these changes,global warming, is significantly impacting the entire planet. The world is undeniably warming, which is causing a series of unexpected disasters. Scientists are working tirelessly to forecast the circumstances given the number of assumptions. The reality, however, may differ and will not always be precise. We may be too late to respond if the planet reaches damage in irreversible conditions. Assume that neither the government nor the people of each country take drastic action. In that case, the IPCC predicts that we will reach 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels within the next few decades. The IPCC is a United Nations Intergovernmental panel on climate change that provides assessments of human-caused climate change. The image given below shows the temperature level within the year 2040.
Scientists attribute rising temperatures to the human induced ‘greenhouse effect.’ Carbon dioxide accounts for most of it. As Display 2 shows, current concentrations of CO2 in the atmosphere are already significantly higher than for the past hundreds of thousands of years. The speed and level of the increase suggest most of it is by human activity.
Decarbonisation- What, how and why is it important?
Decarbonisation is simply reducing the carbon dioxide (CO2) emission into the atmosphere by effectively switching towards the usage of low carbon energy sources, thereby creating an economic system that substantially reduces and compensates carbon dioxide emissions. The concept increases the dominance of low-carbon power generation by correspondingly minimising fossil fuels, creating a high demand for renewable energy sources like biomass, wind power, and solar power.
In the business context, decarbonisation refers to all measures adopted by an entity. It can be either private or public, to bring down its carbon footprints. This involves greenhouse gas emissions, carbon dioxide, and methane, to reduce its impact on the climate as a whole. Khaitan BioEnergy, as a company, has shown key initiatives towards decarbonisation by developing bio-fuels for the global economy. Therefore what matters for investors, is the resulting changes in government policy and consumer behaviour. Similarly the impact on companies and their valuations (the ‘transition risk’) too.
Why is it important?
Decarbonization is essential for a variety of reasons, and these can be summarized in critical points:
Addressing Climate Change:
Decarbonization is crucial in mitigating the effects of climate change by lowering GHG emissions, primarily carbon dioxide (CO2), which are the leading cause of global warming.
Limiting Global Warming:
It aims to limit global temperature rise, as outlined in international agreements like the Paris Agreement, to prevent catastrophic consequences, such as more intense heatwaves, sea-level rise, and extreme weather events.
Decarbonization helps protect ecosystems by reducing pollution, habitat destruction, and the disruption of natural processes caused by the extraction, transportation, and burning of fossil fuels.
Improving Air Quality:
Transitioning away from fossil fuels improves air quality, reducing the health risks associated with air pollution and respiratory diseases.
Energy Security: By diversifying various energy sources and reducing dependence on fossil fuel imports, decarbonization enhances energy security and reduces vulnerability to supply disruptions.
Economic Opportunities: It fosters economic growth and job creation in renewable energy sectors and promotes innovation and competitiveness in clean technologies.
Environmental Sustainability: Decarbonization promotes sustainable practices and reduces the harmful environmental impacts of fossil fuel extraction, transportation, and consumption.
It can address environmental justice concerns by ensuring that the benefits of decarbonization. Also they are accessible to and benefit all communities, especially marginalized and vulnerable populations.
Investing in decarbonization drives technological innovation in clean energy, energy efficiency, and sustainable practices, leading to advancements across various sectors.
Long-Term Resource Conservation:
Decarbonization reduces reliance on finite fossil fuel resources, promoting long-term sustainability and reducing the risk of resource depletion.
A decarbonized economy is more resilient to the impacts of climate change. Thus helping communities better withstand and recover from extreme events.
Global Cooperation: Decarbonization fosters international collaboration to combat climate change, strengthening diplomatic ties and global efforts to achieve climate goals.
Health Benefits: Cleaner energy sources and reduced pollution from decarbonization lead to better public health outcomes and lower healthcare costs.
Thus decarbonization is essential for addressing the climate crisis, protecting the environment, improving public health, enhancing economic opportunities, and ensuring long-term sustainability and resilience in the face of a changing climate.
Why governments, businesses and society are in urgent need of decarbonisation?
In Paris Agreement of 2015, governments and business leaders across different countries have committed to work towards achieving a low carbon economy. Thus making the concept a global imperative priority of governments and companies as it has significant role in limiting global warming. 197 countries worldwide have shown their consensus to gradually reduce the use of fossil fuels and CO2 emissions. This is to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050 and bring down global warming below 2°C by 2100. And to keep global warming within the acceptable level, the only way left is through deep decarbonisation.
Companies operating in specific industries like transport, energy, etc have declared their vision to become carbon neutral by 2050. So to realize this ambitious mission, key progress must be in sectors that share similar nature. This can be like longer asset lifespan, the complexity of electrification and high energy density. And as per the statistics, such sectors account for 32 per cent of the total carbon emissions.
To meet the global temperature standards by the Paris Agreement and the UK government, “there should be reduction in carbon emission from transportation and power generation”.
WHY DOES IT MATTER IF THE WORLD ‘ONLY’ BECOMES 1.5°C WARMER?
Warming will not be evenly spread. The climate will become more unstable and weather patterns disrupted,. Similarly with heatwaves in some places and hurricanes and floods in others. The list of resulting direct physical climate change risks is long. It includes damage to assets, rising sea levels, water stress, crop failures and lower yields, lower fish catches, high mortality and low labour productivity in hotter countries, etc.
But longer-term concern is that at some point in the warming process, various natural feedback mechanisms will kick in, and warming will self-perpetuate and become unstoppable. These include the albedo effect release of methane by melting permafrost . Also the Amazon rainforest dieback is happening. These outcomes are impossible to model exactly, which is why there are a wide range of climate scenarios.
Nonetheless, irreversible damage and our actions in coming decades will dictate our planet’s course for centuries to come.
TARGETING ‘NET ZERO’ BY 2050 IS NOW A GLOBAL IMPERATIVE
The consensus now is that we have to fully decarbonise—reach ‘net zero’—by around 2050. Display 3 models the drastic decline in CO2 emissions. It require an immediate effect in order to reach net zero by both 2055 and 2040.
To achieve zero net emission, there should be a radical switch toward cleaner energy sources. and shifting from fossil fuels to other clean green sources of energy. Complete decarbonisation is the only solution for achieving climate stability, as per the reports by the World Economic Forum.
The global middle-class population is expected to reach 3 billion over the next two decades. Thus compelling the industries to produce more commodities at relatively low prices. But constraints on vital resources will hurdle the industries to meeting the growing demand. Industries being nearly half of the global GDP and employment should note that they contribute to 28% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions. With due concerns over environmental degradation by political parties and international agencies, the decarbonisation of industries has become more prominent. And industrial decarbonisation is not an easy process. It concerns the four major sectors that contribute 45% of carbon emissions into the atmosphere. These sectors include; cement, ammonia, steel and ethylene. And this requires rebuilding the production process from scratch or redesigning the existing sites. Decarbonising these four significant industries requires a careful mix of technologies and strategies. Statistics in recent reports estimate the total cost of industrial decarbonisation to be around $21 trillion.
Following are the most effective ways to decarbonise the four most environmentally significant industrial sectors;
Khaitan BioEnergy, as a company, has shown key initiatives towards decarbonisation by developing bio-fuels for the global economy. The company encompasses the idea of focusing on producing high-efficiency products for the green and circular economy. The company developed and owns multiple patents for technologies that significantly reduce greenhouse gases. By holding an ethanol production patent, the company converted presently wasted albeit economically viable cellulose to sugars to 2G bioethanol . This technology is by undergoing various levels of development and testing. Thus making it highly efficient and unique by fully utilising components of lignocellulosic materials. Rice and paddy straw are the main agricultural waste. With this technology, the long-pending problem of open field burning will significantly solved. E ventually leading to a significant reduction in the environmental hazards arising from such activity.
Khaitan Bio energy uses rice straw to produce Bio-ethanol. The estimated carbon credits from 2G ethanol produced from Rice Straw:
From the life cycle of ethanol production, the reduction in greenhouse gases is estimated at 1 MT of CO2 is reduced for every MT of ethanol. 1 MT of ethanol equals 1268 litres or 1.268 Kiloliters. On 100 Kiloliters/day of production, the weight of ethanol produced is 78.9 MTs. Carbon credits per Kiloliter of ethanol accruable are 0.789 Credits/Kl
The company is commits to the principles of environmental sustainability and green (ESG) & tapping natural resources responsibly. Using the latest technologies contributes to safeguarding the energy supply. With fuels cutting CO2 emissions by up to 88% compared to fossil fuels, Khaitan BioEnergy shows the way forward in climate protection and achieving carbon neutrality in the coming decades.
Regulatory framework governing Decarbonisation
The Paris Agreement of 2015 appears to be a vigilant move towards achieving carbon neutrality. The agreement gets approval from 195 countries across the world. The countries have jointly shown their consensus towards minimizing the increase in global temperature by 2°C and trying hard to reduce it to 1.5°C in the coming decades.
Europe has been very positive and supportive of achieving a low carbon economy through various policies and regulations in recent years. One such initiative was by The European Green Deal 0f 2019. The initiative targets reaching carbon neutrality by 2050 and also aims to improve competitiveness by reducing the gap between economic growth and the use of resources.
The above initiative was rectified in the European Climate Law of June 2021. Targeting to achieve carbon neutrality by 2050 and modified the emissions reduction objective for 2030. And this upward improvement shows reforming the existing energy and climate regulations through a comprehensive legislative package.
Recently, the European Union has approved the Next Generation EU funds of 750 million euros targeting the speedy recovery following the Covid-19 crisis. As per the Recovery and Resilience Plans by the Member States, a part of this fund is used for to achieve the climate objectives.
How to achieve decarbonization
The following are the main steps in the process of decarbonization;
Have a clear understanding of the current potential and baseline. As a first step towards achieving decarbonization, getting a straight forward deal of the current decarbonization journey. It helps to set the target and enable us to make quick decisions about where to start. And to begin with, industries can go for creating baseline emissions by sources.
Further, to create a well decarbonization process, industries and governments can use software to scrutinise the data. Thereby helping the stakeholders and use the data in the right way. Keeping stakeholders is essential to ensure that the decarbonization.
Build and announce the targets: After identifying the goals, the next step is to promote this goal in public, helping businesses to realise those goals faster.
Decarbonization Strategies and Programs: Different industries need to adopt different decarbonization strategies based on their varying nature. Because of advancements in technology, most enterprises require individual efforts to achieve a carbon-neutral economy, such as infrastructural upgrades, digital solutions, and data management.
Monitor and adjust: Towards achieving decarbonization, industriesmight face challenges such as additional human capital, reallocation of finances and more.
Therefore to keep updated with the latest trends, industries must constantly monitor. Also analyse the changes happening in the internal and external business environment from time to time.
The possible impact of the net-zero transition
Various research analysts suggest that as per the Network for Greening the Financial System (NGFS) Net Zero 2050 Scenario, there will be a considerable shift in demand for various goods and services due to changes in policies, technologies, and consumer and investor preferences. By 2050, the oil and gas production will experience a sudden decline in its production volume up to 55- 70%. Further, coal production for energy use may extinct by 2050.
Decarbonisation also significantly impacts the demand for products and services that use fossil fuels. The need for internal-combustion engines may decline considerably because of rising awareness about battery-electric and fuel cell electric cars. And demand for EV’s is expected to reach 100% by 2050.
Regarding other sectors, productions will concentrate more on lower-emission alternatives than products with emission-intensive operations. In the agriculture and food sector, the necessary changes for achieving net-zero transitions can be a shift from protein demand from emission-intensive beef and lamb to a lower emission food option like poultry.
The other sectors like power are expecting exponential demand on account of targets for aligning with net-zero emissions. The power sector is expecting a twofold increase in its market by 2050. Also, the production of biofuels and hydrogen will increase tenfold in the coming years. Other industries that indulge in managing carbon with carbon capture and storage expect to project a high growth rate in the coming years.
Under the NGFS Net Zero 2050 scenario, a capital allocation of nearly $275 trillion is on physical assets as cumulative spending. Achieving a net-zero transition would require eliminating some existing physical assets and replacing them with new ones – investments in installing physical assets with low carbon emissions in a period running from 2021 to 2025. The scenario also ensures the decarbonisation of existing assets. And on average, the annual spending for attaining net-zero emissions amounts to $3 trillion to $4 trillion, which will be equivalent to about 7.5% of GDP from 2021 to 2050. About $1 trillion of the present spending on high emission assets will have to be reallocated to low emission assets. Specific sectors like buildings, power and transportation would account for 75% of the total spending on physical assets.
This capital expenditure for achieving net-zero transitions will result in operating savings in the long run through reduced fuel consumption, improved energy and material efficiency and lower maintenance costs.
The net-zero transition will also impact consumer spending as they may experience increased prices and include the need to replace goods that burn fossil fuels like transportation, vehicles and home heating systems that depend on fossil fuels and a potential change from beef and lamb consumption. Consumers will experience severe hikes concerning mobility and building transitions, and the cost of production in fuels will be transferred to consumers in various duties and taxes.
NGFS Scenario also foresees a demand for 162 million new job opportunities and a decrease in demand for direct and indirect jobs relating to the operations and maintenance sector by 2050. As per the scenario, the need for direct operations and maintenance jobs relating to the fossil fuel extraction and production sector and the fossil fuel-based power sector would be lesser. Whereas the agricultural and food sector jobs will prosper as demand for animal protein is affected under the net-zero mission. On average, 34 million positions associate with livestock and feed-relate jobs will be close by 2050. Similarly, low emission sectors will experience more job gains by 2050.
The rise in cumulative spending on physical assets will create substantial growth opportunities for companies and countries. Companies that minimise the emissions of their processes and products can get numerous benefits. Decarbonising their products and methods can also help them run their businesses cost-effectively. For example, improving the energy efficiency of heating systems in a steel plant can lower both its emission and operating costs. Car makers will prefer to manufacture EVs over Internal Combustion Engines. Industries will shift towards solar, and wind energy to generate renewable electricity and energy companies will start generating biofuels and hydrogen.
Sectors that are exposed to net-zero transition
Fossil fuels: Combining fossil fuels contributes to 83% of global CO2 emissions. And the sector is highly expose to achieving carbon neutrality through energy efficiency, electrification and managing methane emissions. The industry will also face a steady decline in the demand for fossil fuels and growing demand for other energy sources like electricity, biofuels and hydrogen.
New energy sectors-Hydrogen and biofuels: Growing awareness about decarbonisation will soon create more demand for low emission energy technologies. Investments in expanding the capacity and infrastructure of other low carbon fuels would require additional capital spending amounting to $230 billion per year between 2021 and 2050. Net Zero 2050 scenario estimates that hydrogen and biofuels sectors will create two million direct job opportunities by 2050.
Power: To decarbonise the economy, the power sectors of different countries would require a phase of fossil fuels based operations and add low emission capacity power to meet the growing demand for economic development and electrification of other sectors. The sector must require capital spending amounting to $1 trillion, $820 billion, and $120 billion for power generation, power grids, and energy storage. As the industry prospers, the allied sectors like equipment providers, electricity storage hardware and related services will also develop. The industry expects to generate six million direct job opportunities.
Mobility: The transportation segment accounts for 75% of the total mobility emissions. And decarbonisation would require the sector to adopt electric vehicles or vehicles powered by hydrogen fuel cells rather than internal combustion engine vehicles. The Net Zero 2050 scenario estimates annual spending of $35 trillion on the same for building charging and fueling infrastructure by 2050. Nearly nine million job opportunities expect to generate in the EV manufacturing sector by 2050.
Industry: Two leading sectors are given more attention. That is steel and cement, as they contribute 14% of the global carbon emission and 47% of total industrial carbon emission. These two sectors decarbonise by installing CCS equipment or shifting to fuels like hydrogen resulting in zero or low emissions.
Agriculture and food: Agriculture sectors are driven towards carbon neutrality by ensuring that they follow GHG-efficient farming practices. They encourage to increase the production of energy crops to produce biofuels. Annual spending amounting to $60 billion would be required to enable more emission-efficient farming by 2050.
Khaitan BioEnergy, as a company, has shown key initiatives towards decarbonisation by developing bio-fuels for the global economy. The company encompasses the idea of focusing on producing high-efficiency products for the green and circular economy. The company develops and owns multiple patents for technologies that significantly reduce greenhouse gases resulting from transportation fuels to decarbonise the mobility sector. By holding an ethanol production patent, the company converted economically viable cellulose to sugars to 2nd generation bioethanol technology. This technology is developed by undergoing various levels of development and testing, making it highly efficient and unique by fully utilising all the components of lignocellulosic materials in the production of high-value products. Rice straw is a massively produced agricultural waste. With the emergence of this technology, the long-pending problem of open field burning will be significantly solved, leading to a significant reduction in the environmental hazards arising from such activity.
The pre-commercial pilot plant established by the company highly focuses on establishing an end to end process for self-sustained integrated biorefinery, which facilitates zero discharge. And this patented technology by the company is recognised as a significant breakthrough for biotech innovation by the Biotechnology Industry Research Assistance Council, BIRAC.
The company is committed to the principles of environmental sustainability and green (ESG) & tapping natural resources responsibly. Using the latest technologies contributes to safeguarding the energy supply. With fuels cutting CO2 emissions by up to 88% compared to fossil fuels, Khaitan BioEnergy shows the way forward in climate protection and achieving carbon neutrality in the coming decades.