Measuring Impact: The Metrics of Sustainable Success on Sustainability Day 2023

Sustainability is no longer a mere buzzword or a distant aspiration—it’s a crucial and achievable goal that individuals, communities, organizations, and nations are actively pursuing. As we celebrate Sustainability Day 2023, it’s an opportune moment to reflect on the progress made in the realm of sustainability and delve into the importance of measuring impact. To truly gauge the success of sustainable initiatives, we need robust metrics and a commitment to data-driven decision-making.

What is World Sustainability Day

Sustainability Day is observed on October 26th, 2023, during Sustainability month. It is a day to inspire individuals, organizations, and governments to intensify their efforts toward creating a greener and more sustainable future. Sustainability Day aims to accelerate efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, conserve resources, and transition to renewable energy sources. The day plays a vital role in promoting environmental awareness and driving positive change by providing a platform to educate and engage individuals, businesses, and policymakers about the importance of sustainable practices.

Sustainability Day plays a vital role in promoting environmental awareness and driving positive change. By raising awareness, Sustainability Day encourages people to adopt green habits, businesses to implement sustainable strategies, and governments to enact policies that prioritize the environment. By celebrating this day, we can collectively work towards a more sustainable future.

The Evolution of Sustainability

Over the years, the sustainability movement has witnessed significant growth and transformation. What was once primarily focused on environmental conservation has expanded to encompass a broader scope, including social and economic dimensions. The United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) exemplify this holistic approach. Recognizing that environmental, social, and economic sustainability are interconnected.

The Imperative for Measuring Impact

As the sustainability landscape evolves, so too must our approach for measuring and quantifying the impact of our actions. Without a clear understanding of the effects of our efforts, we risk falling short of our goals and overlooking opportunities for improvement.

Why is measuring impact so critical in the pursuit of sustainability?


Quantifiable metrics hold individuals, organizations, and governments accountable for their sustainability commitments. They enable stakeholders to track progress, identify areas in need of improvement, and ensure that promises are kept.

Resource Allocation:

Measuring impact informs resource allocation. By understanding which sustainability initiatives yield the most significant results, decision-makers can prioritize efforts that deliver the greatest value.

Continuous Improvement: 

Sustainable success is an ongoing journey. Robust metrics allow us to identify best practices, adapt to changing circumstances, and continuously improve our sustainability strategies.


Demonstrating and communicating progress through data fosters transparency and builds trust with stakeholders, whether they are customers, investors, or the public.


Measuring impact encourages innovation. When we see the outcomes of our sustainability efforts, we motivate to find creative solutions that drive further progress.

Key Metrics

Sustainability is a multifaceted concept, and therefore, measuring impact must encompass a variety of metrics. Some key indicators include:

Carbon Footprint: 

Assessing greenhouse gas emissions, both direct and indirect, is essential for understanding an organization’s or community’s environmental impact.

Energy Efficiency: 

Monitoring energy consumption and efficiency is crucial for reducing resource use and associated costs.

Biodiversity and Ecosystem Health: 

Tracking the state of local ecosystems, species diversity, and habitat preservation is vital for environmental sustainability.

Social Equity: 

Measuring the well-being and equity of individuals within a community or organization is central to social sustainability.

Economic Resilience:

Analyzing financial metrics, such as return on investment for sustainability initiatives, helps assess economic sustainability.

Waste Reduction:

Measuring waste generation and diversion rates aids in evaluating resource efficiency and environmental impact.

Water Use: 

Understanding water consumption and water quality is key for managing this critical resource sustainably.

Circular Economy Metrics: 

Assessing recycling rates, product lifespan, and waste-to-resource conversion rates is crucial in a circular economy.

Green Initiatives for 2023

Several green initiatives are set to launch in 2023 to pave the way for a greener future. These initiatives focus on various aspects of sustainability and aim to tackle key environmental challenges. Notable green initiatives to watch out for include:

Sustainable Energy Transition

The shift from fossil fuels to renewable energy sources is gaining momentum. In 2023, we can expect increased investments in renewable energy projects such as biofuels, solar and wind. Governments and businesses are recognizing the potential of these clean energy sources to cut carbon emissions and mitigate climate change.

Circular Economy

The circular economy concept seeks to minimize waste and maximize resource efficiency. In 2023, more companies are anticipated to implement sustainable practices like recycling, upcycling, and adopting eco-friendly packaging. The goal is to establish a closed-loop system where materials are reused instead of discarded.

Sustainable Agriculture

Agriculture significantly impacts the environment. In 2023, we foresee the expansion of sustainable farming practices like organic farming, precision agriculture, and regenerative farming techniques. These methods focus on reducing chemical inputs, soil erosion, and water use while ensuring food security and soil health.

The Way Forward

On Sustainability Day 2023, we celebrate our progress and renew our commitment to a sustainable future. Measuring impact is not just a part of this journey; it’s at its core. By adopting robust metrics and a data-driven approach, we can ensure that our sustainability efforts are effective, transparent, and accountable.

As individuals, organizations, and societies, we have the power to shape a more sustainable world. It starts with measuring our impact, making data-informed decisions, and continuously striving for positive change. Sustainability Day is a reminder that our collective actions today determine the legacy we leave for future generations. With the right metrics in place, we can walk the path to a more sustainable and resilient world, where progress is measured not just in numbers but in the well-being of all living beings and the health of our planet.

From Era of Global Boiling to Climate Breakdown: 2023 Being the Hottest Year on Record


In recent years, discussions about climate change have shifted from the abstract concept of global boiling to the alarming reality of climate breakdown. The year 2023 is now etched in history as the hottest year ever recorded. This scorching milestone has profound implications for our planet, ecosystems, and the well-being of future generations. In this article, we will delve into the causes, consequences, and urgent need for action in the face of this climatic crisis.

The Rising Temperatures

Climate scientists and meteorologists worldwide have warned us for decades about the consequences of unchecked global warming. The year 2023 has proven their predictions accurate and deeply concerning. According to information from the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration), NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), and other reputable organizations, global average temperatures in 2023 will have surged to unprecedented levels.

Causes of the Escalation

Several factors have contributed to the global boiling:

  1. Greenhouse Gas Emissions: The burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, and industrial processes continue to release vast quantities of greenhouse gases, mainly carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), into the atmosphere. These gases trap heat and lead to a greenhouse effect, causing temperatures to rise.
  2. Feedback Loops: Climate change triggers various feedback loops that accelerate warming. For instance, as the Arctic ice melts, it exposes darker ocean water, which absorbs more heat, further exacerbating warming trend. Similarly, thawing permafrost releases methane, a potent greenhouse gas.
  3. Extreme Weather Events: 2023 witnessed an alarming increase in extreme weather events like heatwaves, wildfires, hurricanes, and floods. These events devastate communities and contribute to the overall rise in global temperatures.

Consequences of the Hottest Year on Record

The effects of the hottest year on record are far-reaching and devastating.

 Unprecedented Heatwaves and Wildfires

In 2023, the world experienced scorching heatwaves and devastating wildfires, signaling a climate emergency. Record-breaking temperatures ignited fires that ravaged forests, destroyed homes, and displaced communities. The urgency to act is evident as climate change-induced extreme weather events become more frequent and severe.

Rising Sea Levels Threaten Coastal Communities

Sea levels continue to rise at an alarming rate due to the melting of the polar ice caps and glaciers. Coastal regions are increasingly vulnerable to flooding and erosion, endangering the livelihoods of millions. Immediate action is necessary to protect these communities and mitigate the consequences of a changing climate.

Biodiversity is in Peril

Ecosystems worldwide are under threat as rising temperatures disrupt the delicate balance of nature. Coral reefs, critical hubs of biodiversity, are bleaching and dying. Plant and animal species face extinction, affecting the delicate web of life on Earth. Urgent conservation efforts are essential to safeguarding our planet’s diversity.

 Food and Water security are at Risk

The hottest year on record exacerbates food and water scarcity. Agriculture is increasingly challenged by unpredictable weather patterns, leading to crop failures and food shortages. Water sources are diminishing, intensifying competition for this precious resource. Strategies to ensure food and water security must be a top priority.

 Human health is in Jeopardy

Health risks associated with extreme heat and air pollution are on the rise. Vulnerable populations, including the elderly and children, face greater health threats. Vector-borne diseases, such as malaria and dengue, expand their reach in warmer climates. Urgent action is needed to protect public health and well-being.

Economic Consequences Loom Large

The economic toll of climate breakdown is substantial. Infrastructure damage caused by extreme weather events strains public resources. Healthcare costs surge due to climate-related illnesses. The economic impacts are far-reaching and affect individuals, businesses, and governments alike.

International Collaboration for Climate Solutions

Solving the climate crisis requires international cooperation. Nations must come together to set ambitious emission reduction targets and implement comprehensive climate policies. Supporting developing countries in their efforts to combat climate change is crucial for global progress.

Individual Responsibility and Sustainable Practices

Individuals play a vital role in the fight against climate change. Reducing personal carbon footprints through energy conservation, waste reduction, and sustainable living choices can collectively make a significant impact.

The Urgent Need for Action

The situation may seem dire, but it’s not too late to take action.

  1. Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Transition to renewable energy sources, improve energy efficiency, and implement policies to limit carbon emissions.
  2. Reforestation and Conservation: It is imperative to safeguard and rehabilitate forests and other vital ecosystems that function as carbon sinks.
  3. Adaptation: Invest in climate-resilient infrastructure and strategies to adapt to the changing climate.
  4. International Cooperation: Global challenges require global solutions. Collaborate with other nations to set ambitious emissions reduction targets and support developing countries in their efforts.
  5. Individual Responsibility: Reduce your carbon footprint by conserving energy, minimizing waste, and supporting sustainable practices.

A Call to Action

The hottest year on record, 2023, is a stark reminder of the urgency of addressing climate change ang global boiling. The consequences of inaction are evident in the form of extreme weather events, sea level rise, biodiversity loss, food and water insecurity, health risks, and economic challenges. The time for action is now. Governments, businesses, communities, and individuals must work together to mitigate the impacts of climate breakdown and ensure a sustainable future for generations to come.

This year, 2023, should mark a critical turning point in our battle against climate breakdown and global boiling. It is imperative that we recognize the urgency of the situation, acknowledge the science, and take bold actions to mitigate its devastating impacts. The world must unite to combat this crisis for the sake of our planet and future generations. The hottest year on record should serve as a sobering reminder that time is running out and the need for climate action has never been more pressing.

Transportation Fuels and Greenhouse Gases – Unveiling the Connection


The modern world thrives on the wheels of transportation, a dynamic network that connects people, places, and goods across the globe. However, this convenience comes at a steep environmental cost – the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from transportation fuels. This comprehensive exploration delves into the intricate relationship between transportation fuels and greenhouse gases, unraveling the science, understanding the impacts, tackling the challenges, and envisioning a future where sustainable mobility takes the lead.

The Greenhouse Gas Equation

Before diving into transportation fuels and greenhouse gases, let’s lay the groundwork by understanding the science behind this complex equation. Greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O), create a natural blanket around the Earth, allowing sunlight in while trapping heat. This greenhouse effect is essential for maintaining the planet’s habitable conditions. However, human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels, have released excess gases into the atmosphere, amplifying the greenhouse effect and leading to global warming.

The Fossil Fuel Connection

The transportation sector stands as a significant contributor to these emissions. At its core are fossil fuels – the lifeblood of vehicular movement. Gasoline and diesel, derived from ancient organic matter, are the predominant fuels that power cars, trucks, ships, airplanes, and trains. When these fuels combust, they release energy and a barrage of pollutants, including carbon dioxide. This carbon dioxide forms an intricate link between transportation fuels and the greenhouse gases that drive climate change.

The Ominous Impacts of Transportation Fuel Emissions

The convenience and interconnectedness brought about by modern transportation have undeniably transformed our world. Yet, as we speed down highways and soar through the skies, there’s a hidden cost that we can no longer afford to ignore: the profound impacts of transportation fuel emissions. In this blog, we’ll delve deep into the intricate web of consequences that arise from these emissions, touching on climate change, air quality, ecosystem disruption, and more. Moreover it’s time to lift the veil on the far-reaching effects of transportation fuel emissions and consider the urgent need for change.

Global Warming: Heating Up the Planet

At the forefront of the impacts of transportation fuel emissions is the specter of global warming. Carbon dioxide (CO2), the primary greenhouse gas emitted from burning fossil fuels, blankets the Earth’s atmosphere and traps heat, leading to a rise in average global temperatures. This upward trajectory spells disaster for ecosystems, ice caps, and weather patterns.

  1. Melting Ice and Rising Sea Levels: As temperatures climb, ice caps and glaciers melt at an alarming rate, contributing to rising sea levels that threaten coastal communities and low-lying areas.
  2. Extreme Weather Events: The warming climate fuels a surge in extreme weather events, including more intense hurricanes, heatwaves, and droughts, with devastating impacts on both human lives and natural habitats.
  3. Shifts in Ecosystems: Plant and animal species are struggling to adapt to rapidly changing conditions, leading to shifts in ecosystems that disrupt food chains and biodiversity.

Air Quality: A Breath of Concern

Transportation fuel emissions don’t just affect the climate; they also have immediate and tangible consequences for air quality.

  1. Particulate Matter and NOx: Besides CO2, vehicles emit pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter, which contribute to poor air quality. Also these pollutants can penetrate deep into the respiratory system, leading to respiratory illnesses and exacerbating conditions like asthma.
  2. Health Impacts: Communities living in close proximity to major transportation routes or congested urban areas bear the brunt of these emissions, experiencing higher rates of respiratory diseases and cardiovascular problems.

Ecosystem Disruption: Nature’s Delicate Balance

The intricate web of life on Earth is profoundly affected by transportation fuel emissions, with repercussions echoing through ecosystems.

  1. Habitat Alterations: Mainly changes in temperature and precipitation patterns disrupt habitats, forcing species to migrate or adapt to new conditions, leading to imbalances and potential extinctions.
  2. Ocean Acidification: The absorption of excess CO2 by oceans results in higher acidity, harming marine life such as coral reefs and shellfish, which are crucial components of ocean ecosystems.

Social and Economic Implications

The impacts of transportation fuel emissions extend beyond the environment, affecting societies and economies.

  1. Healthcare Costs: Poor air quality increases healthcare costs due to a rise in respiratory illnesses and related medical treatments.
  2. Infrastructure Damage: Extreme weather events caused by climate change can damage transportation infrastructure, leading to expensive repairs and disruptions in daily life.
  3. Displacement and Migration: As sea levels rise and extreme weather events become more frequent, vulnerable communities may face displacement and migration, placing further strain on resources.

Towards a Greener Path: Solutions and Mitigation

As dire as the impacts of transportation fuel emissions may seem, there is a glimmer of hope. A transition to cleaner transportation options offers a pathway to mitigation.

  1. Electric Mobility: Electric vehicles (EVs) are emerging as a key solution, producing zero tailpipe emissions and reducing the overall carbon footprint of transportation.
  2. Biofuels and Hydrogen: Sustainable biofuels and hydrogen can replace traditional fossil fuels, offering cleaner alternatives for various modes of transportation.
  3. Public Transportation and Active Mobility: Promoting mass transit, cycling, and walking reduces the number of individual fossil-fueled vehicles on the road, curbing emissions.
  4. Policy and Regulation: Governments play a vital role in driving change through incentives, regulations, and emissions standards that encourage the adoption of cleaner transportation fuels.

Navigating Towards Change

The impacts of transportation fuel emissions are far-reaching and interconnected, affecting climate, air quality, ecosystems, and society. As we hurtle forward into an uncertain future, the time has come for collective action. Embracing cleaner transportation alternatives, supporting technological innovation, and advocating for policy changes are essential steps on the road to a more sustainable world. The choice is ours to make – to either continue down the path of environmental degradation or veer towards a greener horizon where the ripples of change create a wave of positive transformation for generations to come. The journey may be challenging, but the destination is worth every effort.

The Hurdles on the Road to Sustainability

While the consequences are clear, addressing transportation fuel emissions is a Herculean task laden with challenges:

  1. Infrastructure and Technology: Transitioning to cleaner alternatives like electric vehicles (EVs) requires significant investments in charging infrastructure and leaps in battery technology to extend their range and reduce charging times.
  2. Behavioral Transformation: Encouraging a societal shift from conventional vehicles to greener modes of transportation necessitates technological advancements and shifts in consumer behavior and preferences.
  3. Economic Considerations: The fossil fuel industry wields economic and political influence, making transitioning to cleaner fuels a complex and sensitive issue.

Innovative Solutions and Sustainable Horizons

While challenges persist, a ray of hope shines through innovative solutions:

  1. Electric Mobility: Electric vehicles (EVs) have emerged as a game-changer. By drawing power from renewable sources, EVs produce zero tailpipe emissions, significantly reducing the carbon footprint.
  2. Biofuels and Hydrogen: Sustainable biofuels, derived from organic materials, and hydrogen, a clean-burning fuel, offer potential as cleaner alternatives to traditional gasoline and diesel.
  3. Enhanced Public Transportation and Active Mobility: A focus on mass transit, cycling, and walking promotes sustainable, efficient travel while reducing the reliance on individual fossil-fueled vehicles.
  4. Policy and Regulation: Governments hold the key to accelerating the transition by implementing incentives, regulations, and emissions standards that encourage the adoption of cleaner transportation fuels.
  5. Advancements in Technology: Ongoing research leads to constant improvements in fuel efficiency, aerodynamics, and hybrid technologies, offering ways to reduce emissions further.

Charting For a Greener Path

The nexus of transportation fuels and greenhouse gases is a pivotal crossroads in the journey toward a sustainable future. As the world grapples with the urgent need to address climate change, transportation becomes all the more critical. We can steer our trajectory toward a brighter and more sustainable tomorrow by embracing cleaner transportation options, investing in technological innovations, and forging a collective commitment to change. The road ahead is challenging, but it is a journey that promises a planet safeguarded from the devastating effects of climate change. The clock is ticking, and the time to act is now. Together, we can make a difference, steering humanity away from the brink and onto a path of hope, renewal, and enduring prosperity for generations to come.

Stubble Burning and Climate Change: An Overlooked Contributor to Global Warming

Stubble burning is a common agricultural practice that involves setting fire to crop residue left after harvest. It has been used for centuries to clear fields and prepare for the next planting season. And so it contributes to global warming and climate change to a large extend. In this blog, we will explore the impacts of stubble burning on climate change. Also why it is an overlooked contributor to global warming.


Stubble burning releases large amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. These gases trap heat in the Earth’s atmosphere, causing global temperatures to rise and leading to environmental problems. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that agriculture is responsible for around 25% of global greenhouse gas emissions, with a significant portion coming from stubble burning.


The air quality in the exposed environment is seriously threatened by burning stubble. It should note that agricultural burning significantly lowers air quality since it releases gaseous and aerosol pollutants. The population under exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 is said to have the most significant impact on their health. The World Bank conducted a source apportionment study on PM2.5 for several Indian towns in 2001. They found that, in Delhi, Mumbai, Chandigarh, and Kolkata, respectively. Biomass burning contributes 9–28%, 23-29%, 24%, and 37–70% of the PM2.5 concentrations.

When comparing the burning and non-burning periods in Delhi in 2011. It was discovered that there was a 300 mg/m3 rise in PM2.5 concentration during the rice and wheat stubble-burning seasons, respectively. During the burning events, an increase in the hourly PM10 concentration. In Mandi-Gobindgarh city, Punjab, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations rose by 86.7% and 53.2% for rice and wheat burning seasons in 2015. In Patiala city, they conducted a source apportionment analysis. And found that burning stubble contributes between 100 and 200 g/m3 of PM10 to the city’s air pollution.

Burning stubble is a significant source of air pollution in India, while not the leading cause. The composite emissions come from a mix of point and nonpoint sources. According to Sharma and Dhiskit (2016), these sources include businesses, power plants, automobiles, construction, and indoor pollution. In contrast to transportation emissions, which contain 17% PM2.5, 13% PM10, 53% NOx, and 18% CO, Guttikunda and Gurjar (2012) discovered that emissions from industrial sources contain 15% CO, 14% PM2.5, and 23% SO2. However, emissions from burning stubble are far less; they only include 14% CO and 12% PM2.5.


By burning the vital nutrients in the soil, stubble burning has negative impacts on soil production. And therefore its consequences on air quality. Additionally, it elevates the soil temperature to around 42 °C, which kills or displaces the significant soil microorganisms at a depth of about 2.5 cm. This results in an additional cost for compost or fertilizer to restore soil fertility. Burning snags depletes the soil of micronutrients and nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK), three critical elements. For instance, burning rice stubble results in an annual loss of roughly 0.445 Mt of NPK. Burning wheat stubble results in an annual loss of 0.144 Mt. And burning sugarcane trash results in an annual loss of 0.84 Mt. 


Stubble burning also has significant environmental consequences. And it reduces soil fertility and degrades soil health Thus decreasing crop yields and requiring more effective use of synthetic fertilizers. This, in turn, leads to further greenhouse gas emissions and more significant environmental degradation.

Agricultural productivity

Burning crop residue has negative repercussions on the agriculture industry. Strong empirical support exists for the claim that air pollution impacts food output. Pollutants may have a direct or indirect impact on agricultural output. Injury to leaves, damage to grains, or heavy metal absorption are examples of direct consequences. Nitrogen oxide, for instance, can deteriorate and discolour plant tissue. Plant death might result from the production of acid rain, which has detrimental effects on soil and plants. Plants exposed to particle pollution for an extended period may develop chlorosis or bifacial necrosis. Creating conducive conditions for spreading diseases or pests is one example of an indirect effect. High concentrations of SO2 and NO2 are, for instance, conducive to the growth of insect aphids.

Mortality rates

In recent years, air pollution-related fatality rates have been steadily rising. For instance, between 1990 and 2015, the number of fatalities related to air pollution in South Asia grew from 1.1 million to 1.2 million. Residents of the Indo-Gangetic Plain regions were said to have a life expectancy roughly seven years lower than that of residents of other Indian regions. According to reports, the IGP saw an increase in air pollution of around 65% between 1998 and 2016, and particulate matter concentrations were twice as high as the national average. According to reports, PM2.5, in particular, is the deadliest of all pollutants, and nearly 50% of India’s population is exposed to it. To a high level of PM2.5 with a concentration above the WHO limit (35 µg/m3), while about 49% of the exposed population do not have access to good healthcare (Liu et al., 2018). 

Human Health and Well being

Numerous studies have shown a connection between air pollution and the risk of various health disorders, particularly in children, pregnant women, the elderly, and those with pre-existing conditions. Air pollution can cause severe neurological, cardiovascular, and respiratory conditions and skin and eye discomfort. It may have fatal consequences in certain circumstances, especially if the exposed victim already has respiratory issues. In certain situations, long-term exposure to high levels of air pollution can result in irreversible health damage, such as the onset of lung conditions, including cancer, emphysema, COPD, bronchitis, and capacity loss. Farmers who have been exposed to stubble smoke complain of eye and lung discomfort and have incurred high medical costs

Impacts on Economic growth

Air pollution negatively affects a nation’s economy and its adverse effects on health and the environment. Because a nation’s economic and technical advancements determine how well air pollution is managed, it follows that rising pollution has a variety of adverse effects on that nation’s economy. Due to the rise in air pollution over the past few years, Delhi has seen a 25–30% decline in visitors visiting the city. In 2018, the cost of air pollution to India’s economy ranged from 4.5 to 7.7% of GDP, and when extrapolated to 2060, the figure increased to around 15%. Air pollution also reduces workers’ productivity in other areas by making them ill and difficult to see.

According to the World Bank, in 2013, air pollution cost the global economy $225 billion, with poorer nations bearing the lion’s share of the burden. The Indian government estimated that managing air pollution and providing for its well-being would cost around $14 billion annually. 


The impact of stubble burning on climate change is particularly acute in developing countries such as India and China, where it is still a common agricultural practice. Burning crop residues in these countries contribute to air pollution, smog, and health problems for the local population. It also exacerbates climate change, as the large amounts of greenhouse gases released into the atmosphere increase global warming.

Image showing impacts of stubble burning to global warming and climate change

Due to the release of greenhouse gases like CO2 and CH4, which can potentially contribute to global warming, emissions from stubble fires directly impact weather and climate. According to statistics, the agricultural industry contributes between 17% and 32% of the world’s total yearly greenhouse gas emissions. In 2017, burning crop stubble resulted in emissions of 171.37 Tg of CO2, 0.706 Tg of CH4, and 0.073 Tg of N2O. India produces 658.823 Tg of CO2, equivalent or roughly 12.2% of the world’s greenhouse gas emissions. According to reports, the bad air quality and altered weather patterns contributed to India losing around 36% of its anticipated annual wheat yield in 2018.


Despite these impacts, stubble burning remains a common practice in many parts of the world. This is partly due to the need for more affordable and sustainable alternatives and cultural and historical traditions. However, there are solutions available that can help to reduce the impact of stubble burning on climate change.

  • One solution is to encourage the adoption of conservation agriculture practices, such as zero-tillage and crop rotation, which reduce the need for stubble burning and help to build soil health. These practices can also help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by sequestering carbon in the soil.
  • Another solution is to invest in renewable energy sources such as biogas and biofuels, which can be produced from crop residues and other agricultural waste. This reduces greenhouse gas emissions and provides clean energy for local communities.


In conclusion, stubble burning is an overlooked contributor to global warming and climate change, and it has significant impacts the environment, human health, and agricultural productivity. However, solutions available can help reduce the effect of stubble burning and promote sustainable farming practices. By investing in these solutions, we can help to mitigate the impacts of climate change and create a more sustainable future for all.

The Heat is On: The Impact of Global Warming

We are all acutely aware of the current state of climate change. Wind patterns, temperature, air pressure, and humidity influence our climate. Several climates worldwide include dry, mild, tropical, and more. The seasons there are determined by the temperature. Since we are living creatures, our environment impacts all aspects of our existence. To live a regular life, we thus need a steady and healthy one. However, this trend is being disturbed by global warming.

How does global warming work?

Procedures that cause the earth’s temperature to grow consistently and continuously. A grave issue will put all living things in serious peril. Likewise, there are several causes for this occurrence.

Increased carbon dioxide levels and greenhouse gases are significant contributors to it. Living things will soon meet their demise if we do not take action to solve this issue. Furthermore, we must be aware of its adverse effects to act quickly to remedy it.

Everyone must be made aware of their role in the rising global warming. To rescue the world and all of its inhabitants, it is crucial that we discover a solution that will enable us to address this problem as soon as possible.

Impact of global warming

Global warming indicators

By now, we must all be aware that the earth’s temperature has risen by one degree Celsius. Even though it appears to be a modest number presently, the effects it causes are enormous. Increasing this temperature by even one degree Celsius requires significant energy, and our climate system would need to be force-fed with this additional energy.

A constant increase in the earth’s temperature is called global warming. The generation of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide and methane is a significant factor in this increase. Several scientific arguments show that the earth’s temperature has risen, especially since the 1950s. The world’s climate system has warmed due to human activity during the past several decades, and it is expected that the global surface temperature will likely increase much more in the twenty-first century. This temperature increase is negatively impacting the earth’s life. Here is a thorough examination of the effects of global warming.

Effects on Climate

The precipitation pattern has changed due to global warming in several parts of the world. As a result, some areas are suffering flooding while others are experiencing draught-like conditions. In this manner, the moist parts become wetter while the dry ones get dryer. Along with other environmental changes, an increase in temperature is also causing storms, cyclones, heat waves, and wildfires. Global warming is causing extreme weather in many areas of the world, and the issue is only predicted to worsen. 

 Effects on Sea

Over the 20th century, the sea level has increased worldwide. This increase in sea level can be attributed to two main factors. Two things have happened: first, there was a thermal expansion brought on by the warming of the ocean, and second, there has been an increase in the melting of land-based ice. According to predictions, the sea level will increase significantly shortly. Living in coastal and low-lying areas is seriously threatened by rising sea levels.

 Effects environment

Because of global warming, the earth’s entire environment has suffered. This temperature increase worsens air pollution by increasing ground level ozone, which is created when smoke from industries, automobiles, and other sources reacts with heat and sunshine to generate ozone. Increased air pollution has brought numerous health issues, and things are worsening every day.

Effects of Life on earth

Life on Earth has been severely harmed by the rise in temperature, unpredictable climatic conditions, and air and water pollution. Numerous lives have been lost due to regular floods, droughts, and cyclones, and the rising pollution levels contribute to several health issues. 

Like humans, many other animals and plants cannot adapt to the shifting weather. They are suffering from the adverse effects of the quick changes in the land and water meteorological conditions. The number of animals and plants going extinct has increased. According to studies, the growing amount of pollution and climatic changes are to blame for the extinction of several species of birds, mammals, reptiles, fish, and amphibians.

Agriculture is Affected

The unpredictable rainfall pattern brought on by global warming has most severely impacted agriculture. While specific locations frequently experience draught-like conditions, others often see severe rain and flooding. This is harming the crops as well as the residents of those places. Crops are suffering, and agricultural fields are losing their fertility.

Sea Level Will Rise 1-8 feet by 2100

Since accurate records have been kept since 1880, the sea level has increased by around 8 inches (0.2 meters) worldwide. If carbon emissions continue at their current rate, by the year 2100, experts predict they will have risen by at least another foot (0.3 meters) and perhaps even by as much as 8 feet (2.4 meters). The expansion of seawater as it heats and the additional water from melting land ice are the two main causes of sea level rise.

Even small sea level changes can cause increased flooding because storm surges and high tides combine with sea level rise and land sinking along coastlines to amplify flooding in some regions. Sea level rise will continue past 2100 because the ocean takes a long time to respond to warmer conditions at Earth’s surface fully. As ocean waters continue to warm, sea levels will continue to rise.

Changes in the climate will persist throughout. 

It is predicted that the global climate will continue to warm throughout this century and beyond. The quantity of heat-trapping gases generated by people and how susceptible the Earth’s climate is to those emissions determine the extent of climate change and the severity of repercussions.

Hurricanes Will Become Stronger and More Intense

The intensity of North Atlantic hurricanes and the frequency of the strongest hurricanes have increased since the early 1980s. Scientists project that hurricane-associated storm intensity and rainfall rates will increase as the climate continues to warm.

Longer Wildfire Season

Warming temperatures have made the wildfire season longer and more severe in the West, and deepening drought in the region has increased the risk of fires. Scientists estimate that human-caused climate change has already doubled the area of forest burned in recent decades. By around 2050, the amount of land consumed by wildfires in Western states is projected to increase by two to six times. Wildfires are projected to increase by about 30% in rainy regions like the Southeast.

Globally, fire weather seasons have lengthened. Drought remains the dominant driver of fire emissions, but recently there has been increased fire activity in some tropical and temperate regions due to warmer temperatures that increase vegetation flammability. The northern boreal zone (Earth’s northernmost forests) near the Arctic is also experiencing more prominent and frequent fires, which may increase under a warmer climate.

More fires and a more extended fire season are causing an additional health hazard of wildfire smoke, which affects tens of millions of people in the United States. Meanwhile, the costs of fighting wildfires have risen 11-fold over the past 30 years, adding a financial burden on top of the public health risk.

More heat waves and droughts 

Heat waves (prolonged periods of exceptionally hot weather) and droughts in the Southwest are expected to intensify, making cold waves less severe and more common. The temperature is expected to rise throughout the year. 

Modifications in Rainfall Patterns 

The United States has unequal effects of climate change on precipitation (rain and snow), with some areas experiencing greater rainfall and floods while others are facing drought. Scientists predict that the northern United States will get more winter and spring precipitation this century than the Southwest.

Future climate projections over the U.S. suggest the recent trend toward increased heavy precipitation events will continue. This means that while it may rain less frequently in some regions (such as the Southwest) when it does rain, heavy downpours will be more common.

The growing season (and the frost-free season) will extend.

 Since the 1980s, the length of the frost-free season and the accompanying growing season have increased, with the western United States experiencing the largest increases. The lengthening of the growing season will continue across the country, impacting ecosystems and agriculture.

The length of the growing season is predicted to expand by a month or more throughout the majority of the United States by the end of the century if heat-trapping gas emissions continue to increase at the current rates, with slightly lower increases in the northern Great Plains. The frost-free season might last eight weeks in the western United States, particularly in high-elevation and coastal regions. If we decrease our emissions of gases that trap heat, the rises will be noticeably less. 

Arctic Is Very Likely to Become Ice-Free

Sea ice cover in the Arctic Ocean is expected to continue decreasing. The Arctic Ocean will likely become ice-free in late summer if current projections hold; this change will likely occur before mid-century.


The issue of global warming is quite severe and has disastrous consequences. Immediate action must be taken to reduce carbon emissions to mitigate the effects of global warming. This is feasible if every person puts forth a little effort for the cause.

Environmental Sustainability And Trends

The environment means the surrounding. The environment can be natural or artificial surroundings. The surroundings usually affect and are affected by human activities.

Taking people as the central point, any other thing that surrounds humankind is the environment. People directly or indirectly depend on natural surroundings for their live hood. Also by exploiting these resources, men get food, industrial raw materials, and medicine. In the efforts to satisfy human satiable needs, the natural environment has been destroyed or damaged, affecting human life.

A healthy planet is requiring to reduce poverty, attain equality in resource distribution, and feed the current generation without limiting the future generation’s capability of providing for its population. Other than the economic effects of environmental damage, there are may important aspects that effects of the world’s gradual ecological damage. 

Environmental sustainability

Sustainable environmental management is the significant responsibility of states, firms, and individuals.

Sustainability is the process of utilizing limited natural resources efficiently and effectively without limiting the capability of upcoming generations to meet their own needs. Resources are not under equal distribution. However, they are enough for the entire world population only if they are well-managed and organized.

Despite this recognition of the need to protect the environment, forests, land, water, and fisheries are often over-exploiting by a few individuals who have influence and act in self-interest.

Clearly there is an excellent connection between environmental damage, industrialization and urbanization. According to the reports that human beings altered the natural environment and resulted in living in an unclean, polluted environment. On the other hand, the environment has limited the benefits that human beings could have derived from it.

Factors Affecting Sustainability

Environmental sustainability


The world is fast industrializing, and urban centres are growing. Industrial processes and urban populations emit pollutants into the environment, decreasing environmental sanity. When wastes are not disposed of correctly, they adversely affect the environment. Industries produce greenhouses for the atmosphere, have solid wastes on the earth service and utilize raw materials from the environment. When this is the case, then the environment is damaged.

Population Rise

With the increasing world population, and the need to meet its current conditions, the world is over-exploiting the available natural resources to the point that some have become exhausted. The exhaustion means that future generations cannot meet their needs from such resources. Some people are not aware of the need to manage and conserve the environment, and they misuse the available resources and do not see it as their role to protect the environment.


Selfishness for individuals and firms has resulted in damage and over-exploitation of natural resources as people aim to meet their needs. Indeed the need to meet generational needs has relaxed some national and international rules where governments are not actively enforcing them. 

Environmental Sustainability Trends


Constructions, industries, and urban regions evaluate and disclose the use of energy, carbon discharge, and other environmental sustainability measurements. The landlords of commercial houses do not often have an opportunity. For example, five United States cities and three states have implemented policies which govern energy performance measurement and disclosure currently, and ten other states have proposed the implementation of these policies to support residents and investors in creating effective well-versed choices.

Transparency has grown in cities, and CDP requested 60 cities globally to account for environmental sustainability-associated information in 2011. Among them, 40 cities took action, with 35 taking responses from the public, which was the best idea.

CDP has increased its invitations to 150 cities worldwide. And they have experienced optimistic responses, along with unexpected knowledge and dedication on climate change matters by heads of cities. Clearly these city leaders identified that controlling water, energy, and waste would support the interests of the firms and tenants. Also it support to improve the standard of living in many approaches.

Global Consistency

Extensive reports for environmental sustainability by urban areas and multi-national corporations have strengthened. The reliable approaches to measure the efficiency of water, energy, and other environmental sustainability approaches from a global perspective.

Provided the broad local difference in environmental precedence all over the globe, the intended objective may not be a long international standard. But a method to interpret business activities and local government in international terms for measuring efficiency and identifying success.

LEED is the mechanism for ranking the housing environmental sustainability in the United States. It is often following in several countries with its mechanisms, as landlords aspire to magnetize global tenants.

In 2011, ISO 50001 standard was provided by International Organization for Standardization for energy. This organization structure contains conditions for measurement, certification, and accounting of energy usage.

Reliable measurements are vital to industries and companies. While they emphasize environmental sustainability in their personal functions and progressively all over their supply chain. As CDP cities are not putting any effort into rating the environmental sustainability of urban areas. Whereas they are building up an internationally cohesive background for recognizing the efficiency of environmental sustainability approaches followed by various industries and cities.

Public & Private Collaboration

Business organizations in the United States discovered their mutual goals in 2011. They recognized that association between private and public sectors and collaborative plans are frequently the efficient approach to overpower barriers to environmental sustainability. Some of these shared approaches would be felt mostly in 2012 and 2013.

The Better Buildings Challenge demonstrates the alliance between government and industries objectives in looking for carbon and energy decline and attaining these objectives as well needs support; for instance, organizations such as Greenprint Foundation and World Economic Forum have ordered reforms to loan supporting policies established by the legislative organizations to support funding of energy retrofits and more openly, states in America have realized that they can raise renewable energy installations at housing through providing inducements which would create solar power gainful for landlords within a moderately minimal time.

Jones Lang LaSalle, a section representing companies and government bodies, observes great unused synergy between companies and government bodies in attaining environmental objectives, especially in public and private associations.5 Taking one instance, airports and public bodies usually have surplus land, which is inappropriate for profit-making asset development such as the huge solar energy system.

Initiatives to attain the goal of environmental sustainability

Scientific innovations, inventions and development have resulted in better means of doing things to ensure minimal environmental pollution. The world is becoming a world village with improved transport and communication networks. The transport industry is the one that utilizes some of the world’s limited and exhaustible resources and fuel and then emits gasses that pollute the environment.

Collaborations among different countries have called for product improvement in such industries. Focus is currently on internal productions in a company where automation and recycling strategies embraced. To target different sectors and pollution, the international community is at the forefront of device mechanisms that will assist human beings in being sensitive to environmental damage. Such an initiative was the Kyoto Protocol on carbon emission.

Civil society, government and international bodies are targeting a transformation of human attitudes and perceptions towards the environment to ensure that people appreciate the need to conserve the environment for their and future generations’ good. The enlightenment from the massive campaigns is yielding fruits as people are becoming more sensitive about using the available resources.

The public is impacted by their attitude toward companies that do not have eco-friendly processes and products. A tendency is emerging that consumer power is forcing companies less concerned with the environment to revive their processes and products. Many companies have embraced corporate social responsibilities, which are targeting environmental conservation. These programs include tree planting, recycling and environmental education programs.


Humankind rely on the natural environment directly or indirectly for their live-hood. To ensure that the current generation meets its needs without limiting the degree to which future generation will meet theirs, Khaitan bio energy focus on effective conservation of the environment is necessary. Governments, international bodies, companies and individuals should join efforts to ensure minimal environmental damage.

Clean Energy

Clean energy is the energy from sources that release air pollutants, while green energy is derived from natural sources. There is a precise difference between these two energy types, even though they are often same.

Renewable energy is generated from sources that are constantly being replenished. Unlike fossil fuels and gas, these renewable energy resources won’t run out and include wind and solar energy.

While most green sources of energy are renewable, but not all renewable sources are green. For example, hydropower is a renewable resource. Still, some would argue that it is not green since the deforestation and industrialization for the construction of hydro dams may cause damage to the environment.

It is best to combine renewable energy sources with green energy, such as solar and wind power, to make the perfect mix of clean energy.

Asimple way to identify the differences between these are:

  • Clean energy means clean air
  • Green energy means natural sources
  • Renewable energy means recyclable sources

How does it work?

Clean energy produces power without adverse environmental impacts, such as releasing greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide. Solar power, wind power, and some hydro resources are all clean energy sources.

Why is it so Important?

The important aspect of clean energy is the environmental benefits of keeping mother earth clean. While clean, renewable resources save the world’s natural resources, they also reduce the threat of ecological disasters, similar to energy tumbles or the problems associated with natural gas leaks. With energy diversification through different power plants using various energy sources, it’s possible to produce dependable power inventories to enhance energy security, ensuring enough to meet our demands.


Clean energy provides a variety of environmental and profitable benefits, including a reduction in air pollution. Different clean energy sources also reduce the need for imported fuels( and the associated fiscal and environmental costs they dodge).

Renewable clean energy also has essential cost savings, as there’s no need to extract and transport energies, similar to oil or coal, as the resources naturally replenish.

Another artificial benefit of a clean energy blend is the creation of jobs to develop, manufacture and install the clean energy coffers of the future.

How Can Clean Energy Be Used?

Wind power attaches a windmill to a generator, turning the blades into force. This form of energy has been using for centuries to grind grain, pump water, or perform other mechanical tasks. But it has various application in producing electricity. Onshore and offshore wind farms are becoming increasingly prevalent. Nevertheless, wind power can also utilized at a much smaller scale to generate electricity, even to recharge mobile phones. Aside from these examples of renewable sources, some include geothermal, biomass, and tidal power, which all have advantages and applications.


Clean energy have various applications, from electricity generation to heating water, depending on the energy source.

Solar energy has application in heating and lighting structures, generating electricity, heating water directly, and cooling. Solar panels allow power from the sun to collect and turn into electricity. For instance, numerous people use solar energy for batteries and small theatre lanterns. Still, this same clean energy technology can gauged up to larger panels that used to give power to homes or other structures or, indeed, installations of multiple solar panels, similar to a community solar panel array to entire power municipalities.

Water is another clean resource. Hydroelectric power plants are most apparent, which take water inflow from streams, rivers or lakes to produce electricity. A less quantity of water use comes through external pipes in municipalities and towns. Since there is a huge dependence on water in a day to day life, there’s a move towards employing this energy to help meet domestic and other power requirements. As generators are cheaper to make, this use of external water is getting closer to being a diurnal reality.

Wind power attaches a windmill to a creator, turning the blades into force. This energy has application for many years to grind grain, pump water, or perform other mechanical tasks, but it’s now used more frequently to produce electricity. Onshore and offshore wind granges are getting decreasingly current. Nonetheless, wind power can also employed at a much lower scale to produce electricity, indeed to recharge mobile phones.

Away from these exemplifications of renewable sources, some include geothermal, biomass, and tidal power, which all have advantages and operations.

The Future of Clean Energy

The future of clean energy looks bright. Recently there was an increase installation of renewable energy capacity globally than that of the combination of fossil fuel and nuclear power. Renewable sources now contribute more than one-third of globally installed power capacity. 

As the world population grows, an ever-increasing demand for energy and renewable sources is the answer to providing sustainable energy solutions while protecting the planet from climate change.

Cities and states are also creating policies to increase the usage of renewable energy, which is happening more than just nationally. Several places have set renewable energy portfolios to require a certain percentage of energy to generate from renewable sources. Over 100 cities worldwide now use at least 70% renewable energy. As more towns drive towards becoming 100% renewable, corporations also play an important role by purchasing huge dependency on renewable power.

Clearly, due to fossil fuels being a finite resource, it is clear that the future is renewable, so renewable sources expect to continue to increase in future.

How Can Clean Energy Reduce Global Warming?

Humans have been using fossil fuels for past many decades, and their use increases due to the release of the GHG that produced as a result of burning these fuels. These GHG trap hot rays of the sun in the atmosphere, causing the Earth’s temperature to rise. Global warming is a symptom of climate change that has led to increased extreme weather events, shifting wildlife habitats, rising sea levels and other effects.

Since renewable energy sources don’t result in the emission of GHG such as carbon dioxide, they do not contribute to global warming. Due to these renewable sources, climate change is not advanced, and measures such as reforestation can mitigate the damage already done to the climate.

Can Clean Energy Replace Fossil Fuels?

Since humans have been using fossil fuels for decades, meaning the switch to clean energy has been relatively recent. So, renewable energy sources are still unpredictable and need to meet our global demands for energy. This may show that renewable energy has to get replace with carbon-based sources.

However, it is clear that our energy needs can balance by efficiently storing renewable energy when the demand is present. Much work is focused to improve clean energy’s infrastructure and storage capabilities. With studies showing that clean, renewable energy may replace fossil fuels by 2050.

How Will Clean Energy Help Our Economy?

The creation of jobs related to the manufacture, installation and maintenance of clean energy solutions. It is one of the financial benefits of clean energy. Renewable energy and clean energy are growth sectors as the world moves away from fossil fuels. That means more opportunities will arise in eMobility for power generation and storage.

Of course, the financial implications of clean energy are just part of the story since the real intention behind using clean energy is to create a better future for this universe, so clean energy is good for the environment and a forward step for the industry.


Clean energy can be obtained from various sources. This, when put together, could create solutions for our energy needs.

  • A year’s worth of energy may generated by solar energy alone since the amount of solar energy that reaches the Earth’s surface in one hour is enough to cover the entire world’s energy needs. Of course, solar power has a limit in daytime, the seasons of the year and geographical location. Despite this, solar energy is already has application in both a significant and a domestic level.
  • Wind power is a form of clean energy, with wind farms providing an excellent contribution to power in the UK and elsewhere. When domestic ‘off grid’ wind energy is available, only some properties are suitable for wind turbines.
  • Hydropower is the main commercial clean energy source. This energy source is really more reliable than either wind or solar power and allows for the easy storage of the energy generate so that it can find uses in line with demand. Municipal hydropower also undergoes investigation, meaning that the future could see us all using water flow through pipes in our homes to generate electricity. The use of tidal energy is a large-scale version of hydropower that provides a reliable and predictable supply of energy, although it is not a constant source of energy.
  • TWI has been advancing geothermal power, which harnesses the heat below the Earth’s surface. This is to heat homes or produce electricity. This resource is highly effective in some regions than others. 
  • Biomass uses solid fuel created from plant materials to get electricity. Although this energy source still needs burning of stubbles. Usage of agricultural, industrial and domestic waste as solid, liquid and gas fuel is economical and has environmental benefits.

Is Clean Energy Clean?

All clean energy sources are ‘clean’ by definition. However, not all renewable energy sources are fully clean. For instance, burning wood from sustainably managed forests can be renewable, but it is not pure since this releases harmful gases into the atmosphere.

A truly clean and renewable energy source has zero carbon cost of production and storage, and that is what makes solar power and wind energy clean and renewable.


Clean energy is the future for the power needs of humanity across the globe as reliance on fossil fuels continues to diminish. As the drive towards clean, green and renewable energy continues to im[rove, the cost will fall, and so new plans to develop and install these new power solutions.

More and more people recognize the benefits of clean energy, and so more countries, states and nations sign up for a green power agenda; this will continue to advance.

Renewable Energy

With innovation, renewable power is booming and beginning to keep the promise of a clean energy future. As solar and wind power generation increase, they are integrated into the national electric grid without compromising sustainability.

This means renewables are increasingly displacing non-renewable fossil fuels for generating power, offering the benefit of lower carbon emissions and other forms of pollution. Biomass and giant hydroelectric dams create difficult trade-offs when considering the impact on life-sustaining on the earth, climate change, and other related problems.

 Renewable Energy In Brief

Renewable energy, often called clean energy, comes from natural sources or constantly replenishing processes. Example: Sunlight and wind are renewable sources, even if their availability depends mainly on time and weather conditions.

It is often believed that renewable energy is a new technology when harnessing nature’s power has been used for centuries for heating, transportation, lighting, and more. Over the past 500 years, humans have increasingly turned to dirtier, cheaper energy sources, such as coal and fracking.

Renewable energy sources are becoming more critical now that we have innovative and cheap methods to capture and retain wind and solar energy. Renewables are also expanding at large and small scales, from giant offshore wind farms to rooftop solar panels on homes, enabling power back to the grid.

Dirty energy

Non-renewable energy is also known as dirty energy. It mainly includes fossil fuels like oil, gas, and coal, and Non-renewable energy sources are available in limited amounts.

Sources of non-renewable energy are also found in particular parts of the world, making them more plentiful in some countries than others. In contrast, every country has access to sunshine and wind. Prioritizing renewable energy can also raise national security by lowering a country’s dependence on fossil fuel exports–rich nations.

Many non-renewable energy sources can endanger our mother planet or its persisting life. For example, oil drilling might require strip-mining boreal forests in Canada; the technology associated with hydraulic fracturing may result in earthquakes and water pollution. Similarly, coal power plants may cause air pollution. Moreover, all of these will eventually contribute to global warming.


Image showing types of renewable energy

Solar Energy

Humans have been using solar energy for many decades—for cultivation, dry foods, and many other daily needs.

Solar or photovoltaic (PV) cells are of silicon or other materials that convert sunlight directly into electricity. Distributed solar systems can produce electricity locally for homes and similar small-scale businesses through rooftop panels or community projects that power entire neighbourhoods. In solar farms, mirrors focus sunlight on acres of solar cells to provide enough energy for thousands of homes. Floating solar farms or “photovoltaics”. It can effectively use wastewater facilities and bodies of water that aren’t ecologically sensitive.

As long as they are appropriately sited, solar energy systems produce no air pollutants or greenhouse gases, and most solar panels have little environmental impact beyond the manufacturing process.

Wind energy

Recently, as tall as skyscrapers—with turbines nearly as wide in diameter—stand at attention worldwide. A force from the wind turns the turbine’s blades, which supports an electric generator and generates electricity.

Other Possible Sources of Energy

Hydroelectric power

Hydropower is the largest and most common renewable energy source for electricity. Hydropower means the power produced by water. The fast flowing water in a large river or rapidly falling water from a high level. This force of water then undergo convertion into electricity by spinning a generator’s turbine blades.

Large hydroelectric plants or mega dams are often considered non-renewable energy globally. Mega-dams divert and reduce natural flows and control access for life that rely on those rivers. Similarly, small hydroelectric plants should undergo careful management and do not cause as much environmental damage as they divert only a tiny fraction of the flow.

Biomass energy

Biomass is an organic material from plants and animals, including crops, waste wood, and trees. When stubble undergo burning, the energy liberation is mainly through heat, which produces electricity.

When producing electricity, biomass is often known as a cleaner, greener alternative to coal and other fossil fuels. However, recent studies have shown that many forms of biomass—especially from forests—have higher emissions of greenhouse gases than fossil fuels. There are also negative consequences for biodiversity. Still, some forms of biomass energy emit fewer greenhouse gases. For example, sawdust and chips from sawmills can be used as low-carbon energy sources.

Geothermal energy

The core of the earth is about as hot as the sun, and it is due to the slow degradation of radioactive particles in rocks at the centre. Using deep well drilling, boiling underground water can brought to the surface, which is pumped through a turbine to generate electricity. When geothermal plants pump steam and water into reservoirs, their emissions are usually low. There are ways to grow geothermal plants without underground reservoirs. However, there are concerns about an increased risk of an earthquake in those areas where there is geological hot spots.


It is still early for tidal and wave energy, but the ocean will always dominated by the moon’s gravity, which makes harnessing it attractive. Some tidal energy approaches, such as tidal barrages, work like dams in an ocean bay or lagoon and may harm wildlife. Tidal power depends on structures on a dam-like system or devices anchored on the ocean floor.

Renewable Energy in Daily Life

Solar power

Using the sun’s rays to power the whole house at a smaller scale through PV cell panels or passive solar home design is possible. Passive solar homes designed to welcome the sun through south-facing windows. It is to retain the warmth through tiles, concrete, bricks and other materials that store heat.

A solar-powered home may generate more power than it needs so that the homeowner can sell the excess electricity to the grid. Batteries are also an economically viable way to store extra solar energy at night. Scientists are hard at work on new approaches that blend properties and functions, such as solar windows.

Geothermal heat pumps

Some coils in the back of your fridge act as a mini heat pump, which removes heat from the interior, keeping foods fresh and cool. This technology is a new take on a recognizable process. In a home, geothermal or geo-exchange pumps use the earth’s temperature to cool homes in summer, warm houses in winter and even heat water.

Geothermal systems can be initially expensive but typically pay off within 5 to 10 years. They are quieter, have fewer maintenance issues, and last longer than traditional air conditioners.

Small wind systems

Boats, ranchers, and cell phone companies regularly use small wind turbines. Recently it is now easy to get help with the site, installation, and maintenance of wind turbine homeowners too. A wind turbine may lower your dependence on the electrical grid depending on the electricity demand.

Selling the energy you collect.

Wind- and solar-powered homes can either stand-alone or connect to the larger electrical grid, as supplied by their power provider. Electric utilities in most states allow homeowners only to pay the difference between the grid-supplied electricity consumed and what they have produced. This process is called net metering. If you can generate more electric power than your requirements, your provider may pay you the retail price.

Renewable energy and you

Using renewable energy sources in your home or advocating for them can speed up the transition toward a clean energy future. Even if you can’t install solar panels, clean electricity may be an alternative. If renewable energy is unavailable through your utility, nowadays, purchasing renewable energy certificates to offset your use is possible.

Green Energy: Its importance, Types and Uses

What is Green Energy?

Green energy is any energy produced from natural resources, like sunlight, wind and water, and it usually comes from renewable energy sources.

The key to these energy resources is that they usually don’t harm the environment through factors such as releasing greenhouse gasses into the earth’s atmosphere.

How Does it Work?

Many renewable energy sources can produce green energy, such as solar, wind, geothermal, biomass, and hydroelectric power. Each of these technologies works differently, whether by taking control from the sun, as with solar panels, or using wind turbines or water flow to generate energy.

What Does it Mean?

The definition of green energy is that it cannot emit pollution, such as fossil fuels do, which means that not all renewable energy sources are green. Using organic material from sustainable forests for power generation may be renewable, but the CO2 produced by the burning process makes it not necessarily green. 

It can take millions of years for fossil fuel sources, like coal or natural gas, to replenish themselves. Green sources are usually obtained without any mining or drilling operations which may damage the ecosystems.

Types of Green Energy

The primary types are wind energy, solar power and hydroelectric power. It may include tidal energy, which uses ocean energy from the tides in the ocean. Solar and wind power can be produced on a small scale in people’s homes or on a larger scale in industries.

Image showing types of green energy

The common types of energies are as follows:

Solar Power

Renewable energy, such as solar power, is usually generated using photovoltaic cells, which convert sunlight into electricity. Solar power is also used for heating buildings, cooking, and lighting. Solar energy has now become cheap enough to be applied for domestic uses. It includes garden lighting, although it is also used on a larger scale for entire power neighbor hoods.


Rather than burning stubble, these organic materials can transformed into fuels such as ethanol and biodiesel, thus protecting our mother planet. Having supplied just 2.7% of the world’s energy for transport in 2010, biofuels expects to meet over 25% of global transportation fuel demand by the year 2050.

Wind Power

Wind energy generates electricity by using air circulation around the world to push turbines that generate electricity offshore and at higher altitudes.


It is also known as hydroelectric power since it generates electricity using water flow in rivers, streams, dams, or elsewhere. A small-scale hydropower system can even be created using water that flows through pipes in the home, evaporation or rainfall.

Geothermal Energy

This green power uses thermal energy which is obtained from under the earth’s crust. However this resource requires drilling thereby calling the environmental impact into question, it is a considerable resource once tapped into. Thousands of years ago, hot springs were heated by geothermal energy, and today, this same resource is used to generate electricity using steam. The energy stored in the United States alone is enough to produce ten times as much electricity as coal currently can. Iceland, for example, has easy-to-access geothermal resources, but the help relies on its location to be helpful. To be fully ‘green,’ the drilling procedures must be closely monitored.


The renewable resource must also carefully managed to be accurately labelled as a ‘green energy’ source. Biomass power plants generate energy from wood waste, sawdust, and agricultural waste that can burned. While burning these materials releases a greenhouse gas, emissions are still lower than those from petroleum-based fuels.

Why is it so Important?

Green energy is essential for the environment as it replaces the adverse effects of fossil fuels with more environmentally-friendly alternatives. Since it is derived from natural resources, green energy is also often renewable and clean. It means that they emit no greenhouse gases and are usually readily available.

A green energy source releases lesser greenhouse gases than fossil fuels over the course of its life cycle, as well as fewer or low levels of air pollutants. This is not only supporting our planet earth but also better for the health of living organisms that have to breathe the air.

Using green energy can also help stabilize energy prices as these sources are often locally produced and are not affected by geopolitical crises, price spikes, or supply chain disruptions. Economic benefits include creating jobs in building facilities that serve the communities where the workers are employed. Renewable energy created more than million jobs in last few years worldwide.

Due to the energy production through solar and wind power sources, the energy infrastructure is more flexible, less dependent on centralized sources that can lead to disruption, and less resilient to weather-related climate change.

Green energy also represents a low-cost solution for the global energy requirements of many parts of the world. With costs continuing to drop, green energy will become more accessible, especially to developing nations.


Some examples of green energy are in use today, from energy production to thermal heating for buildings, roads and transport. Many industries are now investigating green solutions, and here are a few examples:

Heating and Cooling in Buildings

Green energy solutions used for buildings ranges from large office blocks to people’s homes. These include solar water heaters, biomass-fuelled boilers, direct heat from geothermal, and cooling systems powered by renewable sources.

Industrial Activities

Renewable heat for industrial activities can run using biomass or renewable electricity. Hydrogen is now a significant renewable energy provider for constructing materials like cement, iron, steel and chemical industries.


Sustainable biofuels and renewable electricity are growing globally in use for transportation across various industry sectors. Automotive is an obvious example as electrification rises to replace te use of fossil fuels, but aerospace and construction are other areas actively investigating electrification.

Can It Replace Fossil Fuels?

Green energy may replace fossil fuels in the coming future. However, it may require diverse production from different means to achieve this objective. Geothermal is usually effective in places where this resource is easy to tap. At the same time, wind energy or solar power is a better way on the basis of geographic locations.

As green energy sources combines to meet global needs. So there is progress in producing and developing these resources, and therefore there is a chance of fossil fuels to phase out eventually.

Despite the fact that we are still some years away from this happening, it is necessary to lower climate change, improve the environment, and move toward a more sustainable future.

Economical Viability

The economic viability of green energy depends on a comparison with fossil fuels. As readily-accessible fossil fuels are undergoing depletion, the cost of this type of energy will only escalate.

Additionally, greener energy sources are becoming cheaper as fossil fuels become more expensive. Other factors favour green energy, like the ability to produce relatively inexpensive localized energy solutions like solar farms. The interest, investment and development of green energy solutions are bringing costs down as we continue to build up our knowledge and can build on past breakthroughs.

As a result, green energy can become not only economically viable but also the preferred option.

Which Type Is The Most Efficient?

Efficiency in green energy is dependent on location. If you have frequent and intense sunlight, it is easy to create a fast and efficient solution for power.

However, to truly compare different energy types, it is necessary to analyze the entire life cycle of an energy source. This process includes an assessment of the energy requires to create green energy resources. Analyzing how much energy can be convert into electricity, and any necessary environmental clearing. Of course, ecological damage would prevent a source from genuinely being ‘green,’ but when all of these factorscombines, it creates a ‘Levelised Energy Cost‘ (LEC).

The most efficient source of green energy is wind farms, which require less refinement and processing than solar panels. Advances in composites technology and testing have helped improve wind turbine lifespan and LEC. However, the same can implement with solar panels, which also see a great deal of development.

A significant advantage of green energy solutions is that they typically require little additional energy expenditure. After they constructed since they often use readily renewable energy sources. Among these are wind energy and solar energy. For coal, usable energy generates just 29% of its original value, whereas wind power generates 1164%.

Renewable energy sources are ranked as follows in efficiency (may vary as developments continue):

  • Wind Power
  • Geothermal
  • Hydropower
  • Nuclear
  • Solar Power

Green Energy Empowering Safer Planet

As a result of the natural resources used in green energy, such as sunshine, wind and water, there are tangible benefits for the environment. Energy sources like these are constantly replenishing, so they are the complete opposite of fossil fuels, which emit greenhouse gases and are unsustainable.

Creating energy that has a zero carbon footprint is a great stride to create an environmental future. If we are able to use it to meet our power, industrial or transportation needs, we will significantly reduce our environmental impact.

Green Energy, Clean Energy and Renewable Energy –Difference

Using these terms interchangeably, a resource can be all of these three together. It may also be renewable but not green or clean (such as with some forms of biomass energy).

Green energy is energy that comes from natural sources, such as the sun.

 Clean energy does not release pollutants into the air. Clean energy comes from renewable, zero-emission sources that do not pollute the atmosphere when used, and energy efficiency measures save energy.

Renewable energy comes from constantly replenishing sources, such as hydro power, wind power or solar energy.  Renewable energy is that energy that comes from sources or processes that are constantly replenished. These energy sources include solar, wind, geothermal, and hydroelectric power

Wind power is an example which comes under the three categories together. It is renewable, green and clean – since it comes from natural sources, self-replenishing and non-polluting sources.


Green energy is part of the world’s future, offering a cleaner and better alternative to many of today’s energy sources. Readily replenished, these energy sources are good for the environment and lead to a rise in employment and become more economically viable as the progress in development.

Since the fact that fossil fuels are a thing of the past, and so they do not provide a sustainable solution to our energy needs, by developing various green energy solutions, we can create a sustainable future for our energy provision without damaging the world we all live in.


Zero Liquid Discharge

What is ZLD?

Generally speaking, zero liquid discharge refers to a process that maximizes water recovery from a wastewater source otherwise destined for disposal. Salts and other solids are produced from wastewater and are usually disposed of in landfills. When all wastewater is purified and recycled, zero liquid is discharged at the end of the treatment cycle of zero-liquid discharge (ZLD).

Economic growth results in massive energy consumption, which leads to a series of environmental issues worldwide. Governments have been making strict emission standards for environmental protection. In the Paris Agreement, a universal environmental target to keep global warming below 2 degrees Celsius. This led to ambitious decarbonization goals set for most developed countries to support with policies and laws. COP26 reaffirms the temperature goal in the Paris Agreement and phased out low-efficiency fossil fuel subsidies. The UK parliament passed an amendment for cutting emissions in 2019 to achieve the pollution reduction ambitions, which set a zero discharge emission precedent.

Ethanol production: focussing sustainability

The process that Khaitan implemented not only produces ethanol but also converts waste streams into high-value-added by-products by undergoing multistage refinery steps. Inorder to achieve zero liquid discharge, additional waste processing methods are carried out. It is possible to avoid water pollution in the proposed process due to an extra water recycling step.The use of fossil fuels as operation energy, however, results in increased CO2 emissions and reduced water pollution. To ensure the proposed bioethanol plant has an environmental advantage over traditional ethanol refinery plants, the CO2 emission per kWh for all kinds of electricity should not be over 0.11 kg/kWh. Thus, the proposed concept of zero discharge bioethanol plants could establish in Countries with access to sufficient renewable electricity supply.

Lignocellulosic biomass is one promising renewable resource due to its low price, abundance and efficient conversion technologies. On the one hand, the technologies to convert lignocellulosic biomass into biochemicals, such as biodegradable plastics, succinic acid and ethanol, are mature. These chemicals have the potential to replace fossil fuels-derived chemicals by providing technological support. Besides, the feedstock supply could ensure due to the abundance of availability globally.

Components of Bio refineries

In order to achieve zero liquid discharge, biomass to ethanol biorefinery plant includes the following nine main process steps. (1) feed handling. (2) feedstock pre-treatment. (3) enzyme production. (4) hydrolysis and fermentation. (5) distillation. (6) combined heat and power generation. (7) wastewater treatment. (8) storage. (9) utility management (water system and power system),

  At first, the feedstock undergoes loading and shredding for downsizing. Then pre-treated at a high temperature to decompose lignocellulosic biomass into its components like lignin and cellulose. For high-efficiency hydrolysis. Sulfuric acid, a proven competitive low-cost and high-efficiency pre-treatment solution widely applies in feedstock pre-treatment. Then, the pretreated feedstock mixes with an enzyme. This is produced in the enzyme production process for hydrolysis and fermentation under a suitable reaction condition. Finally, the glucose and pentoses hydrolyzed from cellulose and hemicellulose undergo catalyzing by an enzyme converting to ethanol. The ethanol distillation process will separate ethanol, lignin and stillage. The ethanol and stillage further process for storage and wastewater processing (the grey flow chart in, respectively. The storage plays a crucial role for elemental sources supplying to bioethanol plants.

Lignin Extraction

Extracted lignin from ethanol distillation and biogas from zero liquid discharge undergo combustion to produce energy mainly heat, power and steam. This is for biorefinery plant operation and electricity grid to increase plant profitability. The ash disposal is used for agricultural purposes in such cases. The utilities include on-site recirculation of cooling water and external electricity from the grid to support biorefinery plant operation.

It is clear that various waste streams such as CO2 and wastewater discarded to the environment causes secondary pollutants, simultaneously reduce the benefits to sustainable development. However, its original intention was to reuse agricultural waste and protect the environment. For instance, in ethanol refinery process, stillage from ethanol distillation contains abundant organics. This high-value contents convert to low-value biogas for combustion. Lignin is a substantial potential raw material for the chemistry industry. In comparison, most of the lignin in traditional bioethanol refineries will burn for power generation, which causes not only source waste but also environmental impact. There is no doubt that the lignocellulose-based bioethanol production cost is much higher than the ethanol market value. Thus, optimizing processing design and increasing by-product value is Khaitan bio energy focus on Zero discharge facility, thus focus on saving our mother planet.

ZLD Ethanol Plants

Compared to the traditional process, this work aims to maximize the value-added by-products and achieve zero waste emission. It proposes a by-products processing path that extracts value-added lignin, furfural and other organics. To realize this, wet stillage undergoes filtering and dried to separate lignin and wastewater in the lignin extraction process. In this process, the insoluble organics such as lignin, small amounts of water and soluble organics will get remove from stillage. The eutrophic wastewater will further extracted to generate furfural, ethanol and other organic powder by multistage fractionation in by-products purification processing and storing in storage. As with traditional bioethanol production, purified water will pump to feedstock pre-treatment processing for water recycling. Except for primary usage, the rest purified water will discharge into the environment. The organic powder will then return to the soil as fertilizer for soil organic matter protection.

Methods used

To achieve the innovation of the bioethanol production process, the design of the zero liquid discharge process stood on the excellent than previous traditional ethanol production. Therefore, Khaitan bio energy implements the by-products purification process and lignin extraction process focusing towards zero emission. In contrast, the other areas like feed loading, pre-treatment, enzyme production, hydrolysis and fermentation, distillation, utility, and storage.

CO2 emission

Regarding environmental impact, CO2 emission is a critical criterion for biorefinery ecological assessment. 

The calculation of CO2 emission of electricity is based on the data from the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in 2020 in the US. The total CO2 emission of zero waste emission plant accounts for approximately 27.6 % of that in the traditional bioethanol plant. To extract high-concentration by-products from mixed aqueous solutions, a high volume of water should undergo distillation, resulting in significant electricity consumption in By-product purification


The zero discharge emission process is more competitive than traditional biorefinery plants. This is mainly in terms of profitability in the ethanol market particularly if possible to achieve low electricity prices. The pre-treatment and fermentation processes are critical in capital cost. High value-added by-products income improves the bioethanol plant’s profitability. 

Because the development of lignocellulosic biomass biorefinery is still developing, a substantial technical gap exists in replacing fossil chemicals. Although the purchase price of cellulosic biomass feedstocks is competitive with petroleum on an energy basis, the lack of economic competitiveness in biochemicals is the main challenge for biorefinery.