COP 28: Pioneering Global Climate Action 

COP 28


The 28th United Nations Climate Change Conference or Conference of the Parties (COP 28) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) took place in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE) last year  from 30 Nov 2023 – 13 Dec 2023. This monumental event marked another important  milestone in the global effort to combat climate change and foster sustainable development. COP 28 brought together world leaders, climate activists, scientists, policymakers, and industry leaders to discuss and negotiate critical climate actions and policies.

Ethanol was showcased to play a pivotal role in global decarbonization efforts, goals and Paris Agreement commitments on an international stage, with India leading the charge through the formation of Global Biofuel Alliance. In an effort to decrease the reliance on fossil fuels, India has mandated a 25% Ethanol blending in petrol by 2025 which will increase to 30% by the year 2030. In the supply year 2022-23, the average proportion of ethanol blended with petrol in India stood at 12%. Additionally, the government has mandated a 5% co-firing of agricultural residue-based pellets with coal in all power plants, as well as the promotion of CBG and biodiesel manufacturing from agricultural residue. These initiatives are in line with the global agenda for a sustainable and inclusive transition towards cleaner energy sources.

India’s active participation in the Global Biofuel Alliance has positioned it as a frontrunner in biofuel technology and policy formulation. This highlights the potential for international cooperation, research, and technology exchange to enhance biofuel production. The utilization of biofuels also supports the objectives of the Paris Agreement, which seeks to limit global warming to below 2 degrees Celsius, preferably 1.5 degrees Celsius, compared to pre-industrial levels. This makes biofuels a promising solution in addressing the issue of rising temperatures.

The Significance of COP 28

COP 28 is not just another international conference; it is a vital gathering aimed at accelerating the implementation of the Paris Agreement and addressing the urgent need for global climate action. The conference emphasized focus on several key objectives:

Strengthening National Commitments

Countries presented more ambitious Nationally Determined Contributions (NDCs) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. These commitments are crucial for keeping global temperature rise well below 2 degrees Celsius, with efforts to limit it to 1.5 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.

Enhancing Climate Resilience

COP 28 emphasized the importance of adaptation and resilience, particularly for vulnerable countries and communities that are disproportionately affected by climate change. This includes discussions on funding mechanisms and technological support to build resilience.

Mobilizing Climate Finance

A significant focus was placed on mobilizing financial resources to support climate action, especially in developing countries. This includes fulfilling the $100 billion annual commitment made by developed countries to assist developing nations in their climate efforts.

Advancing Technology and Innovation:

The conference highlighted the role of technology and innovation in mitigating climate change and promoting sustainable development. This includes the deployment of clean energy technologies, digital solutions, and nature-based solutions.

Engaging Stakeholders

COP 28 provides a platform for diverse stakeholders, including governments, businesses, civil society, and indigenous communities, to engage in dialogue and collaborate on climate solutions.

Renewable Energy Initiatives:

COP28 has committed to diversifying its energy mix and increasing the share of renewable energy. The Clean Energy Strategy 2050 aims to generate 75% of the emirate’s energy from clean sources by 2050. A flagship project under this strategy is the Mohammed bin Rashid Al Maktoum Solar Park, one of the largest solar parks in the world with a planned capacity of 5,000 megawatts by 2030.

Waste Management and Circular Economy:

COP28 also focused on waste management and the transition to a circular economy. The  Integrated Waste Management Strategy 2021-2041 aims to reduce the amount of waste sent to landfills and promote recycling and waste-to-energy projects. Initiatives like the Waste-to-Energy Plant in Warsan highlights sustainable waste management.

Khaitan Bio Energy (KBIO)  Role in Climate Action

KBIO has made significant strides in sustainability and climate action. Its vision aligns with the objectives of COP 28, showcasing numerous initiatives and projects that contribute to a greener future. By producing 2nd Generation Ethanol from paddy straw, it not only promotes clean transportation fuel, but also helps stop open field burning of crop residue. This double advantage  significantly reduces greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution, thereby helping India reach its NET ZERO target.

Outcomes of COP 28

The outcomes of COP 28 are critical in shaping the global climate landscape for the coming years. Some of the outcomes include:

Enhanced NDCs: Countries submitted updated and more ambitious NDCs, reflecting stronger commitments to reducing emissions and enhancing resilience.

Financial Commitments: Increased pledges and mobilization of climate finance, particularly for adaptation and resilience in developing countries. This includes innovative financing mechanisms and private sector engagement.

Technological Advancements: Agreements and partnerships to accelerate the deployment of clean technologies and innovations. This includes initiatives for technology transfer and capacity building.

Policy Frameworks: Development of robust policy frameworks to support the implementation of climate actions at national and international levels. This includes policies for carbon pricing, renewable energy deployment, and sustainable land use.

Global Solidarity: Strengthened global solidarity and collaboration in addressing the climate crisis. This includes fostering partnerships between governments, businesses, civil society, and other stakeholders.


After gruelling negotiations, countries reached a deal at the COP 28 summit in Dubai, calling for “deep, rapid and sustained reduction in greenhouse gas emissions” and “transitioning” away from fossil fuels in the energy system in an orderly and equitable manner. This was the first time that fossil fuels have been addressed in climate talks, calling for transitioning away from fossil fuels in the energy system in a just, orderly and equitable manner, replacing it with clean energy to achieve net zero by 2050 in keeping with the science. Ethanol will be at the forefront of this clean energy revolution, with the transport sector still emitting one quarter of Greenhouse gas emissions. By directly replacing fossil fuel in vehicles and aeroplanes (sustainable aviation fuel), ethanol can significantly help reduce dependency on fossil fuels and thereby minimize greenhouse gas emissions.

COP 28 in Dubai represented a pivotal moment in the global fight against climate change. As a host city, Dubai exemplifies the possibilities of sustainable urban development and the potential for transformative climate solutions. The outcomes of COP 28 will be crucial in determining the trajectory of global climate efforts, making it imperative for all stakeholders to engage, collaborate, and commit to a greener, more resilient future.