Lignin Valorization

In the last decade, lignocelluloses have drawn the scientific community’s attention as a rich resource for 2G ethanol production and other by-products. This is highly important because of many reasons. It mainly include climate change concerns. Also the risks of interruptions in food supply chains in various parts of the world are becoming more urgent. In this circular economy, lignin valorization in biorefineries serve as the highly suitable industrial platform to develop the essential chemical changes.

Biorefineries are defined by the IEA as the sustainable processing of residual biomass into a wide range of bio-based products. It mainly includes food, feed, materials, chemicals etc and bioenergy like fuels, power, heat etc. Furthermore, the main goal of the biorefineries are the complete valorization of stubble. Thereby lowering the environmental pollution through an alternative energy or materials and to achieve less dependency on fossil-based fuels and materials.
Regarding the lignocellulosic biorefineries, there are still important limitations that still make them non-cost-competitive.

The first commercial lignocellulosic ethanol production facility started in the U.S (2013). Initially plan consists of the construction of 5 lignocellulosic ethanol plants from 2013 to 2016. However only one ethanol plant was in operation in 2019. Moreover, the maximum lignocellulosic ethanol production from this biomass source peaked in 2018 at 15 million gallons. Far behind the expected target of 7 billion gallons expected. As a result of the ability to produce low to high-value compounds on a large and stable basis from lignin. Lignocellulosic biorefineries could potentially become more economically viable. Also competitive by offering a diverse range of products instead of just methanol.

Conversion of lignin

 Definition of Lignin and its features

Lignin is the complex chemical compound most derived from biomass. It is a set of non-sugar molecules acting like glue to hold the fibres. It is a chemical bond of carbohydrate materials, occurs throughout the cell wall, and fills the spaces in it. Lignin is the main component of lignocellulosic biomass, making up about 15-30% of its weight. The three main monomers consists of almost all lignin found in nature are:

  • p-Coumaryl alcohol-minor component of stubble
  • Coniferyl alcohol-mainly found in softwoods
  • Sinapyl alcohol-building blocks of hardwood lignins

Considering the chemical structure of lignin, it is composed of three primary phenylpropane units or hydroxyl cinnamyl alcohols. It mainly consists of guaiacyl propanol (G), syringyl propanol (S) and p-hydroxyphenyl propanol (H). These all link through various chemical bonds. Although the phenylpropane units have similar chemical structures, their differences rely mainly on the quantity of substitution of methoxy functional compounds.

Importance:

  • Adhesive of wood
  • Binds the fibres
  • Provides rigidity and toxicity to the wood
  • It is the most slowly decomposing component of biomass, contributing a significant part of the material that becomes humus as it decomposes.

Uses and Properties: 

 The lignin adds compressive strength and hardness to the cell wall of plants and have a major role in the evolution of greens by suporting them to withstand the gravitational force. It also waterproofs the plant’s cell wall, supporting the upward movement of water in xylem tissues. Lastly, lignin has antifungal properties and often rapidly deposits in response to fungal infection, protecting the plants from the diffusion of toxic fungal enzymes.

Lignin is removed from wood pulp in manufacturing paper. It is mainly by treatment with chemical agents such as sulfur dioxide, sodium sulfide, or Sodium hydroxide. 

Particleboard and similar laminated or composite wood products contain lignin as a binding agent, as a soil conditioner, as a filler or as an active ingredient of phenolic resins, and as a linoleum adhesive. Vanillin (synthetic vanilla) and dimethyl sulfoxide are also made from lignin.

The main properties of lignin include:

  • Highly stable material. So it requires treatment with solid alkali at high temperatures.
  • Stable with acids
  • Oxidizing agent
  • lignin structure is complex.

Sustainability of lignin valorization

Lignin is the second rich biopolymer in stubble, with high potential as a source of many aromatic chemicals and compounds required for construction. Over-exploitation of lignin can raise the profitability of many lignocellulosic biorefineries and the production of biobased products that can contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions from those of equivalent fossil fuel-based processes. However, one of the main obstacles to the full exploitation of biobased materials is the complex structural variation of isolated lignins due to the natural variability of biomass feedstocks and the differences in biorefinery layouts: The distribution of molecular weights, the distribution of available groups, and the residual impurities are all affected.

Large volume and low specific value applications of lignin include producing energy and biofuels. In contrast, small-volume and higher value-added applications include the production of chemicals through lignin depolymerization and specific functionalization.

Future of Lignin Valorization

While the most common lignin from the pulp paper industry currently accounts for 170 tons/year, additional important current lignin include lignosulfonates, alkali lignin, acid hydrolysis lignin, steam explosion lignin and organosolve lignin. The development of novel pretreatment technologies at the industrial scale, such as steam-assisted pretreatment or solvent-assisted biomass fractionation, has led to novel lignins from novel feedstocks with characteristics suitable for more targeted potential applications.

The current review consists of the analysis of the available technical lignin with a special focus on lignins stemming from new technologies and producers, including market volumes at the global level. At the European level, many projects have been funded in the last ten years for the conversion of lignins to final products.

There are many challenges facing biorefineries, including novel and sustainable approaches to lignocellulose fractionation, treatment, transformation, and commercialization of the final products, as well as resolving a number of constraints that affect lignin treatment/transformation. This blog highlights the main restraints for industrial lignin valorization in light of its abundance as stubble and the sustability of lignin valolrization and its potential applications in different industries. In addition, lignin depolymerization propose a flexible and potentially resilient platform under instabilities in the market. Furthermore, Khaitan is implementing the essential technological tools to accelerate scientific breakthroughs in lignin research and the development of lignin for use as a source of fuels and materials in the future

Lignocellulosic biomass

 How lignocellulosic biomass support sustainability

One of the most abundant resources in this world is biomass. Biomass consists of three primary materials such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Therefore, biomass can consider as a lignocellulosic material. Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) has dormant supremacy in defeating the present/future energy dilemma. This is due to the steady exhaustion of non-renewable fossil fuels. Lignocellulose also helps generate a wide range of bio-based chemicals and biofuels as sustainable feedstock. In addition to being polymers of sugars, cellulose and hemicellulose are using for sugar fermentation or converting sugars into products. Lignin is a polymer compound which contains phenolic compounds. Rice husk/stubble is one of the biomass with a high order of lignin. It has unique characteristics because of its silica content.

Khaitan bio energy uses high efficient techniques for lignin and silica extraction. It is done during the lignin isolation process following enzymatic saccharification. The technology has been so as to establish an end to end process for a self sustained integrated biorefinery. Most importantly it focusses a “Zero discharge facility”. 

 Khaitan bioenergy estimates to produce that tons of bioethanol yearly from lignocellulosic biomass obtained from stubble residues alone.

Simple diagrammatic view of Biomass – Fuel Conversion

Lignin and silica as by product

Among various biomass sources, the stubble primarily consists of cellulose (35–45%), hemicellulose (20–25%). Whereas the presence of lignin is 15–20% along with a high amount of silica and ash (10–15 %). Looking forward the production purposes of the paddy field are increasing. This results in 1.1–1.3 times straw as agro-residue in the last years. Eventhough available at a large scale and a low-cost source, stubble is still underutilised due to the high presence of silica, making it chemically and biochemically resistant (indigestible b). This leads to piling up in landfills and burning the field, causing substantial air and soil pollution. 

In order o highlight the value of rice straw, converting it into high-value chemicals and fuels is an encouraging approach. However, the pretreatment of stubble is the bottleneck of the process to derange the unmanageable nature for bringing out sugar ompounds or other target chemicals. The method of acid hydrolysis is implemented in the pre treatment. Through this process, lignin and silica are simultaneously undergoes extraction to enhance holocellulose content and accessibility in the final product and produce selectively target chemicals.

The intricate nature of the composition of stubble is due to the rigid cell wall and the proximity of lignin and hemicellulose. Thus, holocellulose expects to disintegrate by chemical or biological pretreatments.This fantastic product of evolutionary developments has long shown potential as a highly sustainable and renewable source of fuels and materials.

The main use of Lignin for the manufacturing of biofuel or other useful compounds by two ways. Firstly by uncoupling lignin polymer from other cell wall polymers and secondly by exploiting the properties of lignin polymer for biofuel or for the production of other commercially useful products. Whereas Silica is widely used as a proppant. It holds open the fractures created by hydraulic fracturing allowing oil and gas to flow out of the formation.

Lignocellulose – A vital source to produce high-value marketable, and sustainable products.

Recently there has been a rise in research interest in the value or revaluation of lignocellulose-based materials due to increasing scientific knowledge, global economic and environmental awareness, legislative demands, and the manufacture, use, and removal of petrochemical-based by-products. The application of green technologies to extract and transform biomass-based carbohydrates, lignin, oils and other materials into a broader spectrum of marketable and value-added products with a zero-waste approach is a remarkable review.

Recognizing sources of biofuels such as biodiesel and biochar can reduce the environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Biofuels can also counter the raising demand of fossil resources and reduce reliance on non-renewable sources. However, it is essential to implement practical, scientific and robust tools to evaluate the exact advantages of using biofuels over conventional energy sources. Life cycle assessment has been identified as a comprehensive evaluation approach. This is to measure environmental impacts over the entire manufacturing chain of biofuels.

Bio-based economies have been the subject of significant research efforts. The main focus is to transform petroleum-based economies into socially acceptable, environmentally friendly, and comprehensively sustainable ones.

There is currently an intensive research effort in bio-refineries to develop sustainable and eco-efficient products to compete in the petroleum-based product market. Currently the energy reserves is becoming more and more difficult to access. Inorder to diversify the energy mix, Khaitan Bio energy operate in today’s most demanding environment enabling the transition to a more sustainable energy

H2, EV and Biofuel

The automobile industry is a core sector with inspiring success stories. The automobile industry’s estimated annual production is 22.93 million in FY 2022. It contributes 49% of India’s manufacturing GDP and 7.5 per cent to the country’s GDP. Further, Automotive manufacturers are seeking alternative methods to power cars and other vehicles to reduce carbon emissions and fossil fuel use. Such initiatives have driven the industry to launch vehicles adapted to biofuel, electricity, and Hydrogen.

What to know about 3 types of Fuel Alternatives

Resources like water, natural gas, fossil fuels, or biomass are the traditional raw materials for fueling a vehicle, which is now in limited supply. However, hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe. Hence, Hydrogen cars (FCEVs) are those cars that have characteristics of both electric vehicles and conventional petrol cars. These cars produce electricity by allowing hydrogen to react with oxygen to create the chemical production of electricity and water vapour. Hydrogen cars are much faster to refuel than electric cars, reducing atmospheric pollutants’ emissions.

Electric vehicles (BEVs) are either partially or fully powered by electric power. EVs run on a lithium-ion battery, charged by plugging into a socket or any other charging unit. They are eco-friendly vehicles that can accelerate faster than vehicles with traditional fuel engines. Moreover, they are cheaper, noiseless engines that produce no exhaust fumes and are more reliable than hydrogen-powered vehicles. Globally, the Government have been investing in infrastructure for electric cars. There is widespread availability of charging stations in petrol pumps, motorway rest stops, shopping centres and even on specific streets for convivence and ease of access.

Biofuel is a renewable energy source from organic matter like wood, straw, sludge, sewage, vegetable oil, etc. It helps maintain a healthier and cleaner environment since there is no emission of hazardous gases, such as Carbon monoxide (CO) or Sulphur oxide (SO), thereby reducing the risk of global warming. Biofuel can be classified into first, second, and third generations based on their feedstock and production technology.

Differences between H2 and EV

Range

Hydrogen vehicles offer a higher range and faster refuelling when compared to electric vehicles. For, e.g. the Hyundai Nexo can manage 414 miles and only takes five minutes to fill up. The range of EVs is highly dependent on their vehicle. For instance, expensive cars like Tesla Model S have a range of 375 miles compared to a real-world range of 150 miles for the less expensive Nissan Leaf Acenta.

Availability of Charging/Refuelling Station

Hydrogen cars have less infrastructure, with only around 400 refuelling stations across the globe. Currently, In comparison, EVs have thousands of charging stations worldwide.

Cost of Ownership

Currently hydrogen cars are costly, with no affordable options in the market. But overall expense of FCEV’s can be lesser in comparison to BEV’s. On the other hand, the cost of an EV depends on the model and manufacturer.

Safety

Hydrogen is a safer alternative than conventional fuels in a multitude of aspects. Also, hydrogen is non-toxic, unlike traditional fuels. But safety concerns are still based on its flammable nature when stored in bulk. Electric vehicles have insulated high-voltage lines and safety features that deactivate the electrical system when they detect a collision or short circuit. All-electric cars tend to have a lower centre of gravity than conventional vehicles, making them more stable and less likely to roll over.

Emissions

Many conventional fuels are toxic or contain poisonous substances. These include potent carcinogens responsible for the increased risk of human cancer cell growth. But there are no greenhouse gas emissions from hydrogen. In the case of EVs, it has zero tailpipe emission as it runs on electricity.

Difference Between EV and Biofuel

Maintenance

An electric vehicle with no friction between moving parts or exchanges between liquids and gases needs neither lubricant nor exhaust. Stationary fuel cells, in particular, need very little maintenance, with servicing required once every one to three years.

Emissions

Though electric vehicles are not 100% green, they produce a fraction of the greenhouse gases and waste that a combustion engine car does. They even compared it to biofuel vehicles. The only greenhouse gases produced are in the actual manufacturing of the car and the emissions produced from the power plants supplying electricity to your home where your car vehicle is plugged in.

Limitations

The downsides are that there is a strict limit to how many miles can be traveled in a day on a full charge before needing to recharge. With biofuels, there is no limit since you can refuel in seconds compared to hours with an electric vehicle.

Availability & Accessibility

Biofuels are a renewable energy source. Because biofuels are derived from plant matter (and occasionally animal matter) that can be harvested annually or, in the case of algae, monthly, biofuels are theoretically unlimited. But in India, biofuel blending can only thrive as a fuel when it has a necessary infrastructure facility for extraction, production and distribution. However, the Union minister of India has addressed the necessity of flex-fuel vehicles and imposed a mandatory option towards automakers to offer cars that run on 100% biofuels within a few months. Electric vehicles are more accessible due to government policies to boost e-mobility and thus promote the development of a charging infrastructure network. There are currently over 10,76,420 electric vehicles and 1,742 Public Charging Stations (PCS) operational in the country.

Cost

Biofuel adaptive vehicles, also known as flex-fuel vehicles, are currently a concept but can be a real deal after a few months. Thus, the fuel price of bioethanol, a type of biofuel, would be Rs. 65 against the current petrol price of Rs.110. In contrast, electric cars in India, priced accordingly, include Tata Tiago EV (₹ 8.49 Lakh), Tata Nexon EV (₹ 14.99 Lakh) and Mercedes-Benz EQS (₹ 1.55+ Crore). Electric two-wheelers are priced from 50,000 to 2 Lakh.

Difference Between H2 and Biofuel

Emission

Hydrogen, after processing, generates electrical power in a fuel cell, emitting only water vapour and warm air. It holds promise for growth in both the stationary and transportation energy sectors. Emissions from biofuel, such as Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter and other hydrocarbons, are much less than conventional fuel.

Pricing

Hydrogen is cheap, and its combustion produces only water (no CO2). It has three times as much energy as an equivalent quantity of petrol. Current green hydrogen production costs range anywhere between ₹320 and ₹330 per kilogram in India. It can reduce to as low as ₹160-170 per kg by 2030, bringing parity with grey hydrogen and other fossil fuels. But hydrogen contains less energy per unit volume than all other fuels. Transporting, storing, and delivering it to the end-use point is more expensive per gasoline gallon. The average price of ethanol and biodiesel in India is Rs.70 per litre. However, there is a substantial difference in these prices among countries as well as states.

Potential

The transport sector, railways, and aviation is the major end-user of biodiesel, and bioethanol. It can also be found in automobiles, energy production, the chemical industry, etc. However, bioethanol production from fourth-generation feedstock is still in the embryonic stage. With India’s prime energy demand is to be doubled by 2040 and thus the demand of biofuel would increase as a result.

Based on FY 2021- quarterly update, India’s biodiesel market demand stood at 0.17 million tonnes despite major setbacks due to the pandemic induced disruption in supply chains. The report predicted a healthy growth of 8.60 per cent CAGR until 2030, with a forecasted demand set to reach 0.26 million tonnes. Also, for hydrogen induced fuel showcases similar growth potential as the cumulative value of the green hydrogen market in India could be $8 billion by 2030 and $340 billion by 2050. Electrolyser market size could be approximately $5 billion by 2030 and $31 billion by 2050.

Storage

Hydrogen is difficult to store due to its low volumetric energy density. It is the lightest of all elements, more delicate than helium, and quickly lost into the atmosphere. The onboard hydrogen storage systems expense is too high, particularly in comparison with conventional storage systems for petroleum fuels.

But in contrast, the storage of pure biodiesel from vegetable oil is to be safely kept at 45° to 50°F. In cold climates, Above-ground tanks may need to be heated or insulated, depending on the location. Also, biodiesel should not be stored or transported in copper, brass, bronze, lead, tin, or zinc because these metals will hasten degradation. If biodiesel is held for about four to five months, a stability additive to be used, especially in more southern climates due to increased temperature and humidity. Ethanol also tends to absorb water from the surrounding environment—stored in dry areas with low humidity. Ethanol will absorb any condensation that forms inside storage vessels.

Availability

The biomass feedstock required for biofuel are more expensive than petroleum. Also the processes for producing the fuel aren’t yet efficient enough to produce it very cheaply. But as of current scenarios in the year 2021, The United States was the leading biofuel producer in the world, with production amounting to 1,436 petajoules. Brazil and Indonesia ranked second and third, with figures at roughly 840 and 312 petajoules, respectively. By comparison, Germany’s biofuel production reached around 121 petajoules, placing the country amongst the top five countries in biofuel production, and the leading producer in Europe.

Bioethanol vs Biodiesel

When fossil fuels are used, they produce gaseous emissions that contribute to global warming. As a result, alternative green energies derived from food residues, agricultural leftovers, or industrial food residues should be considered for sustainable development. Because of the continual increase in waste, converting waste to alternative energies or biofuels is a beneficial element. Traditional waste disposal methods, such as landfilling or incineration, produce greenhouse gases. Lignocellulose sources containing carbohydrate polymers and lignin are used to produce biofuels. These components are used as feedstock in manufacturing chemical materials, biofuel, biomethane, and biohydrogen, which are alternatives to fossil fuels. Various pretreatment methods and modern technologies are available to improve the biodegradation of various bio-waste or lignocellulose biomass which helps to convert bio-waste to biofuel (bioethanol, biodiesel, and biogas). Many academics worldwide have been developing alternative energy (biofuel) production technologies to replace fossil fuels by lowering the economic cost of bio-waste pretreatment.

Bioethanol is a type of alcohol derived from grain crops. The alcohol is primarily produced through the fermentation of existing carbohydrates in starch or sugar crops. Furthermore, cellulosic biomass is being researched as a source of ethanol production. Transesterification is used to create biodiesel from vegetable oil and animal fat. Bioethanol is similar to gasoline (Petrol), but biodiesel is identical to fossil diesel. Pure biodiesel and bioethanol can be used as fuel in vehicles with adapted engines. Although biodiesel is typically used as a fossil fuel additive, bioethanol is commonly used as a gasoline additive.

Classification

The first generation, second generation, and third generation of biofuels are divided based on the feedstock used to make ethanol or biodiesel. Additionally, the term “Advanced Biofuels” is frequently used to refer to innovative biofuel production techniques that utilise waste materials as feedstock, including garbage, used cooking oil, and animal fats.

First-generation

First-generation biomass, a food source, is utilised to make ethanol and biodiesel. Food crops that are biochemically classified as carbohydrates are used to ferment sugar or starch to produce ethanol. In contrast to corn, the primary source of starch, sugar comes mostly from sugarcane. Wheat, barley, and sugar beets can also make first-generation ethanol in addition to cane and maise. First-generation biodiesel is made from oils such as soybean, rapeseed (canola), sunflower, and palm.

Second-generation

Non-edible sources of biomass are used to create second-generation ethanol and biodiesel. Specific biofuel crops, agricultural residues, and wood chips are all sources of second-generation ethanol. These resources are biochemically classified as lignocellulosic materials. Most of the non-edible oils used to make second-generation biodiesel originate from jatropha. Other small sources include Jojoba, Karanja, moringa, castor, soapnut, and cottonseed oils.

Third-generation

Algae, a single-celled organism, is frequently used to make third-generation ethanol and biodiesel. Typically, algae are divided into groups according to the environments in which they live, such as freshwater, marine, or wastewater habitats. A particular alga is picked depending on its capabilities to produce ethanol or biodiesel.

Production

The production of ethanol and biodiesel involves various biological and chemical procedures. Fermentation and transesterification are the primary processes for making ethanol and biodiesel. Thus, ethanol is produced by fermenting any biomass rich in carbohydrates (sugar, starch, or cellulose) using a method equivalent to beer brewing.
Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch to fermentable sugar occurs before fermentation in the first-generation ethanol manufacturing process. Cellulose is dissociated from the lignocellulosic structure during the production of second and third-generation ethanol utilising a variety of pretreatments.

In theory, making biodiesel is less complicated than making ethanol. The oil is initially extracted from all three types of biodiesel feedstocks. The oil is then transesterified to create biodiesel. Transesterification is a chemical reaction in which an ester reacts with an alcohol to generate another ester and another alcohol. Triglyceride oils (esters) are then blended with methanol (alcohol) to produce biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters) and glycerin (alcohol).

Policies

Bioethanol

  • Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) First Generation Program: From 1st January 2003, the Government of India decided to supply ethanol mixed fuel in nine states. Four union territories for the sale of 5% ethanol blended Petrol. The EBP Program aims to achieve several goals, including reducing import dependency, conserving foreign exchange, lowering carbon emissions, and boosting the agriculture sector.
  • The Department of Food and Public Distribution (DFPD) sent a statement to the Cabinet on 25th September 2007, which was reviewed by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) during its meeting on 9th October 2007. In this meeting, the CCEA opted for 5% mandatory ethanol-to-petrol blending and 10% optional blending by October 2007, and 10% mandatory blending by October 2008.
  • Low availability and state-specific issues had slowed EBP Program success. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy’s (MNRE) previous National Policy on Biofuels – 2009 permitted ethanol production from non-food feedstock such as molasses, celluloses, and lignocelluloses. On 2nd January 2013, a Gazette Notification was released directing OMCs to sell blended ethanol gasoline with an ethanol content of up to 10% as per BIS Specification to reach 5% ethanol blending across the country.
  • As of 31st March 2019, the EBP Program was being implemented in 21 states and four union territories following the partition of Andhra Pradesh and the formation of the new state of Telangana. Also, Public Sector OMCs were buying ethanol from suppliers and selling up to 10% ethanol mixed gasoline.
  • The Government of India launched the “Pradhan Mantri DIVAN (Jaiv lndhan – Vatavaran Anukool fasal awashesh Nivaran) Yojana” on 28th February 2019 as a tool to create 2G Ethanol capacity in the country to encourage the 2G Ethanol sector and support this emerging industry by creating a suitable ecosystem for setting up commercial projects and increasing R&D. On 8th March 2019, the scheme was published in the Extraordinary Gazette of India.

Biodiesel

  • The MoPNG established a Biodiesel Purchase Policy in October 2005 to promote biodiesel production in the country, which went into effect on 1st January 2006. OMCs must purchase Biodiesel (B 100) that meets the BIS fuel quality criterion for 5% blending with HSD from authorised procurement centres across the country under this regulation.
  • The Cabinet approved on 16th January 2015 to allow the direct sale of Biodiesel (B 100) to all consumers by private Biodiesel makers and their authorised dealers. Also, the Joint Ventures of Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) approved by MoPNG.
  • The Motor Spirit and High-Speed Diesel (Regulation of Supply, Distribution and Prevention of Malpractices) Order, 2005 was amended on 10th August 2015, allowing the direct sale of Biodiesel (B100) to Bulk Consumers such as Railways, State Road Transport Corporations, etc. On 10th August 2015, a few retail outlets (petroleum pumps) across the nation began selling mixed biodiesel, which oil marketing companies also introduced.
  • Later, on 29th June 2017, MoP86NG issued Gazette notification No. GSR 728 (E) amending the Motor Spirit and High-Speed Diesel (Regulation of Supply, Distribution, and Prevention of Malpractices) Order, 2005, stating that the Central Government may permit the direct sale of biodiesel (B100) for blending with high-speed diesel to all consumers, subject to the conditions specified in the notification.
  • In March 2016, the ISO 15607 Biodiesel (B100) — Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (Fame) —Specification was modified with the following Scope: “This standard specifies the sample and testing requirements and techniques for biodiesel (B100) — fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for use in compression ignition engines intended for use as a stand-alone fuel and as a blend stock for diesel fuel. The B 100 stand-alone can also be utilised for heating and industrial engines.
  • In December 2017, BIS updated ISO 1460 (Automotive Diesel Fuel Specification) as “ISO 15607 biodiesel (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, FAME) can be blended with automobile diesel fuel for up to 7% (v/v)”.

Overview

The average calorie consumption is rising along with the global population growth, increasing the demand for rare arable land while raising the energy needs of developing countries. Most likely, biofuel or other alternative renewable sources will be required to supply the extra gasoline. However, rising feedstock prices have restricted biodiesel and bioethanol production. Feedstock accounts for a sizable amount of the cost of producing bioethanol and biodiesel. Large-scale farming for bioethanol and biodiesel feedstock requires much arable land. In this sense, unlike bioethanol, there is no requirement for all biodiesel feedstock to be deforested to free up land for feedstock supplies.

Government support, global trade, and technological advances can continuously lower the economic cost of eventual biofuel production, making it more competitive with fossil fuels. Rising oil prices have provided financial support for biodiesel and bioethanol in recent years. The majority of bioethanol and biodiesel feedstock production is for food feedstock, which has the potential to deplete food supplies. As a result, the global debate between food and fuel demands may heat up. Biodiesel was chosen over bioethanol due to non-food feedstock outputs such as jatropha and algae. Large amounts are necessary for large-scale bioethanol and biodiesel feedstock cultivation.