The Intricacies of Biomass-Based Energy Technology Research and Development

The quest for sustainable energy solutions has led scientists and engineers to explore the potential of biomass-based energy technologies. Biomass, derived from organic materials like wood, agricultural residues, and organic waste, holds promise as a renewable and environmentally friendly energy source. As researchers delve into Biomass Energy Technology (BET), a critical question emerges: How long does the intricacies of biomass take from the initial Research and Development (R&D) stages to establish a commercially viable plant?

Biomass-Based Energy Technology (BET) stands out as a promising frontier in the realm of sustainable energy solutions. Rooted in utilising organic materials, such as wood, agricultural residues, and organic waste, BET holds the key to a renewable and environmentally friendly energy future. As we explore the journey from ideation to commercial viability, let’s delve into the critical Research and Development (R&D) phase, where innovation takes root and potential transforms into reality.

The Intricacies of Biomass-Based Energy: Ideation and Innovation Incubation:

Brainstorming and Conceptualization (0–6 Months):

  • The journey commences with the fertile ground of creativity. Scientists, engineers, and innovators brainstorm ideas, exploring the vast possibilities of biomass-based energy solutions. This initial phase, lasting approximately six months, involves conceptualizing innovative approaches and identifying key research areas.

Feasibility Studies (6–12 Months):

  • As ideas take shape, researchers conduct comprehensive feasibility studies to assess the viability of proposed biomass-based energy technologies. This crucial step, spanning six to twelve months, involves evaluating potential biomass sources, understanding logistical challenges, and estimating the economic feasibility of the envisioned technology.

Laboratory Testing and Concept Validation:

Experimental Design (12–18 Months):

  • With a solid conceptual foundation, the R&D phase progresses to the design of laboratory experiments. Researchers outline protocols, methodologies, and testing parameters to validate the theoretical framework developed during the ideation phase.

Laboratory Testing (18–36 Months):

  • The heart of the R&D phase lies in laboratory testing. Throughout the next couple of months, scientists conduct a series of controlled experiments to validate hypotheses, assess the efficiency of proposed processes, and gather data crucial for the technology’s eventual Scaling.

Data Analysis and Optimization (36–48 Months):

  • The extensive data collected during laboratory testing undergoes meticulous analysis. Researchers identify patterns, optimize processes, and address any unforeseen challenges. This phase, spanning thirty-six to forty-eight months, is pivotal for refining the technology before it advances to larger-scale experiments.

Pilot Scale Experiments:

Prototype Development (48–60 Months):

  • Armed with insights from laboratory testing, researchers embark on developing small-scale prototypes. This marks the transition from controlled environments to real-world simulations. The development phase spans forty-eight to sixty months, during which engineers refine the technology for pilot-scale implementation.

Pilot Scale Testing (60–84 Months):

  • The pilot-scale testing phase, lasting sixty to eighty-four months, involves constructing and testing small-scale models designed to mimic the conditions of a larger operational plant. This hands-on testing allows researchers to fine-tune processes, troubleshoot potential issues, and gather valuable data for further optimization.

The Intricacies of Biomass-Based Energy: Scaling Up Phase

As the sun sets on the rigorous Research and Development (R&D) phase of Biomass-Based Energy Technology (BET), a new dawn emerges—the Scaling-Up Phase. This critical stage propels innovation from the controlled environments of laboratories and pilot-scale experiments to the grand stage of commercial viability. Let’s unravel the intricacies of this transformative journey, where theory transforms into reality, and promises of sustainability come to life.

Demonstration Plant Construction:

Engineering Designs and Permitting (Months 0–12):

  • Armed with successful pilot-scale experiments, the first steps in the scaling-up phase involve detailed engineering designs and securing necessary permits. This phase, spanning to at least 1 year, requires meticulous planning and compliance with regulatory requirements.

Securing Funding (Months 12–24):

  • The construction of a demonstration plant demands a substantial financial investment. Researchers and project managers work diligently to secure funding from government grants, private investors, or partnerships with industry stakeholders during this phase.

Construction and Commissioning (Months 24-36):

  • The groundbreaking moment arrives as construction commences. Engineers and construction teams bring blueprints to life, erecting the physical manifestation of years of research and development. Commissioning the plant involves rigorous testing to ensure functionality and efficiency.

Operational Testing and Optimization:

Operational Testing (Months 36-48):

  • With the demonstration plant standing tall, the focus shifts to operational testing. Researchers conduct comprehensive tests to assess the technology’s performance on a larger scale. This phase, lasting thirty-six to forty-eight months, is instrumental in identifying operational challenges and fine-tuning processes.

Optimization and Troubleshooting (Months 48–60):

  • Operational data gathered during the testing phase undergoes thorough analysis. Researchers optimize processes to enhance efficiency, address unforeseen challenges, and implement improvements based on real-world operational insights.

Commercial Plant Construction:

Finalizing Engineering Designs (Months 60–72):

  • Success at the demonstration plant sets the stage for the final leap—constructing a full-scale commercial plant. This phase involves refining engineering designs based on insights from the demonstration plant, ensuring seamless integration into real-world operations.

Securing Additional Funding (Months 72–84):

  • Commercial plant construction demands additional funding, often on a larger scale than the demonstration plant. Researchers and project managers work diligently to secure the financial backing for the final push towards commercial viability.

Construction and Commissioning (Months 84–96):

  • The culmination of years of research, development, and testing unfolds as the full-scale commercial plant takes shape. Construction teams work tirelessly to bring the vision to life, and commissioning involves comprehensive testing to ensure all components operate as intended.


The scaling-up phase of Biomass-Based Energy Technology represents a monumental leap from the controlled environments of labs and pilot-scale experiments to the grand stage of commercial viability. This dynamic journey involves navigating engineering challenges, securing funding, and fine-tuning processes to transform innovative concepts into scalable, sustainable solutions. As the biomass-based energy sector advances through the scaling-up phase, the vision of a greener and more sustainable energy future comes ever closer to realization.

Producing Steam Power: The Role of Biofuel Plants


The need for clean, renewable energy sources has never been more apparent as the world races toward a more sustainable future. In this quest, biofuel plants are emerging as key players, particularly in producing sustainable steam power as well as by-products. This blog explores the pivotal role that biofuel plants play in generating clean steam and the broader implications for a greener energy landscape.

The Power of Steam

Steam has been a driving force behind industrialization for centuries. It has played a central role in human progress, from powering locomotives to operating machinery. However, the conventional steam generation methods, often reliant on fossil fuels, have led to significant environmental challenges, including greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution. This is where biofuel plants come into play.

Biofuel Plants: The Sustainable Solution

Biofuel plants, primarily focused on producing biofuels like biodiesel and ethanol, are becoming increasingly instrumental in generating sustainable steam power. In light of the growing concern surrounding pollution resulting from stubble burning, Khaitan Bio Energy has developed a method for extracting ethanol from this source, thereby producing a valuable fuel. As such, the implementation of effective stubble management practices can yield significant economic benefits for farmers while simultaneously mitigating the risk of severe environmental pollution. Here’s how it is contributing to a cleaner, greener energy landscape:

Biomass Conversion

Biofuel plants process biomass materials such as agricultural residues, forestry waste, and dedicated energy crops. These organic materials serve as a renewable resource for steam generation.

Low Carbon Footprint

Unlike fossil fuels, which release carbon dioxide when burned, biofuels derived from biomass have a significantly lower carbon footprint. This translates into reduced greenhouse gas emissions.

Energy Efficiency

Modern biofuel plants are designed with energy efficiency in mind. They maximize biomass conversion into biofuels and can efficiently utilize byproducts for steam production.


Many biofuel plants adopt a co-generation approach, producing biofuels and steam power simultaneously. This not only enhances resource utilization but also reduces waste.

Waste Reduction

Biofuel plants can transform waste materials that would otherwise decompose and emit methane (a potent greenhouse gas) into valuable energy resources.

Sustainability Practices

The biofuel industry often adheres to sustainable farming practices, promoting responsible land use and reducing the environmental impact of agriculture by producing steam power.

Steam Generation in Biofuel Plants

 Biomass Feedstock

The first step in steam generation is obtaining biomass feedstock. This can include crop residues from rice/ paddy fields, forestry byproducts, or specially grown energy crops like switchgrass. The choice of feedstock impacts the efficiency and sustainability of the biofuel plant.

 Biomass Preparation

Once collected, the biomass is processed to remove impurities like rocks and contaminants. It will then undergo chopping or shredding into smaller pieces to improve combustion and handling.


In the combustion process, biomass is burned in a boiler. This produces high-temperature flue gases and heat energy. The heat energy is transferred to water to create steam through a heat exchanger.

 Heat Exchange

Steam generation relies on heat exchange. Water flows through tubes or pipes within the boiler, absorbing heat from the burning biomass. As the water heats up, it turns into steam.

Steam Quality Control

Maintaining steam quality for efficient plant operations is essential. This involves controlling factors like pressure, temperature, and moisture content to ensure the steam meets the specific requirements of different processes within the biofuel plant.

 Steam Utilization

The generated steam is used for various purposes in the biofuel plant. It can drive turbines to produce electricity, provide heat for drying biomass or other processes, and even useful in the production of biofuels themselves.

 Environmental Considerations

Biofuel plants aim to be environmentally friendly. Steam generation from biomass is often seen as a sustainable alternative to fossil fuels, as it can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and minimize environmental impacts.

 Efficiency and Optimization

Efficiency is crucial in biofuel plant operations. Engineers and operators continually optimize the steam generation process to maximize energy output, reduce waste, and minimize environmental impact. 

Benefits of Sustainable Steam from Biofuel Plants

Indeed, here are the benefits of sustainable steam from biofuel plants, explained with subtitles:

1. Environmental Sustainability

  • Reduced Carbon Emissions: Using biofuels in steam generation significantly lowers carbon emissions compared to fossil fuels, making it an environmentally responsible choice.
  • Mitigation of Climate Change: Lower carbon emissions contribute to mitigating climate change by reducing the greenhouse effect.

2. Energy Security

  • Domestic Energy Source: Biofuels are typically produced domestically, reducing reliance on imported fossil fuels and enhancing energy security.
  • Energy Independence: A stronger focus on biofuels decreases dependence on foreign oil, which can have geopolitical and economic implications.

3. Economic Benefits

  • Rural Development: Establishing and growing biofuel plants often creates jobs and stimulates economic development in rural areas, providing income opportunities for agricultural communities.
  • Agricultural Sector Support: Increased demand for energy crops and crop residues benefits the agricultural sector, diversifying income sources for farmers.

4. Energy Diversity and Resilience

  • Diversified Energy Portfolio: Including biofuel-based steam power in the energy mix diversifies energy sources, reducing vulnerability to supply disruptions.
  • Resilience to Price Fluctuations: A diverse energy portfolio helps stabilize energy prices, reducing the impact of price fluctuations in specific energy markets.

5. Technological Advancements

  • Research and Innovation: The biofuel industry drives research and innovation in sustainable energy solutions, leading to biofuel production and utilization technology advancements.
  • Spurring Clean Energy Development: Innovations in biofuel plants can lead to broader applications in clean energy production, furthering the transition to renewable energy sources.


Sustainable steam generated from biofuel plants offers a wide range of benefits, including environmental sustainability, improved energy security, economic growth in rural areas, energy diversity and resilience, and the promotion of research and innovation in the clean energy sector. These benefits collectively contribute to a more sustainable and resilient energy landscape.

Sustainable steam power from biofuel plants is vital to achieving a more environmentally friendly and resilient energy landscape. By harnessing the power of biomass and minimizing carbon emissions, biofuel plants play a pivotal role in transitioning to cleaner and more sustainable energy sources. As the world seeks to address climate change and reduce its environmental impact, the continued growth and innovation in the biofuel industry are poised to make a significant difference in our collective journey toward a greener future.

Harnessing Nature’s Power: The Global Biofuel Alliance

India is on a thrilling journey towards a greener future, with an ambitious goal of achieving carbon neutrality by 2070. But that’s not all—the country is also making great strides in the world of biofuels. In fact, the government has recently accelerated its target to achieve 20% ethanol blending in petrol by 2025–26, a whole five years ahead of schedule! And the results speak for themselves.

India has already achieved its target of petrol supplies with 10% ethanol blending, surpassing the original deadline by a whopping six months. This is a clear indication of India’s commitment to embracing sustainable energy sources and reducing its carbon footprint. But India’s biofuel journey doesn’t stop there. Just like the International Solar Alliance, the country is now setting up a Global Biofuel Alliance. This Alliance will focus on not only promoting the adoption of biofuels but also creating new and innovative biofuels. It aims to establish globally recognized standards, identify the best practices from around the world, and ensure active participation from the industry. The potential of the global ethanol market is also worth noting.

Global Collaboration for a Greener Tomorrow

Prime Minister Modi has officially inaugurated the Global Biofuel Alliance. This has garnered the support of 19 countries and 12 international organizations. This alliance boasts the participation of both G20 member nations and non-member countries. Notably, India, Brazil, and the United States stand as the founding members of this esteemed coalition. The prime minister’s launch of the alliance was graced by the presence of esteemed leaders such as US President Joe Biden, Brazilian President. Also, Luiz Inacio da Silva, Argentinian President Alberto Angel Fernández, Italian Prime Minister Giorgia Meloni, and Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina, among other notable figures.

In addition to India, Brazil, and the United States, the remaining G20 member countries that support the initiative. It include Argentina, Canada, Italy, and South Africa. Bangladesh, Singapore, Mauritius, and the United Arab Emirates are invitee countries to the G20. The non-G20 countries that have expressed interest in joining the alliance. They are Iceland, Kenya, Guyana, Paraguay, the Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Uganda, and Finland. 

Furthermore, various international and multilateral organizations have shown interest in the initiative, including the World Bank, Asian Development Bank, World Economic Forum, World LPG Organization. Also UN Energy for All, UNIDO, Biofutures Platform, International Civil Aviation Organization, International Energy Agency, International Energy Forum, International Renewable Energy Agency, and World Biogas Association. The three founding members of the alliance, namely the United States, India, and Brazil, account for approximately 85% of global ethanol production . Also, 81% of consumption.

Commitment to Renewable Energy

In a statement made on X (formerly Twitter), the Prime Minister expressed his appreciation for the establishment of the Global Biofuel Alliance. Which he considers to be a significant milestone in our pursuit of sustainability and clean energy. He extended his gratitude to the member nations that have chosen to join this alliance. This alliance aims to position itself as a global platform that facilitates the advancement of biofuel production. This is done through technology transfer, increased demand, and enhanced trade.

Biofuel Alliance: A Game-Changer in the Energy Sector

The global biofuels market values at a staggering $116.46 billion in 2022. And it is predicted to grow at a remarkable compound annual growth rate of 8.3% by 2030. By that time, it is expected to surpass a mind-boggling $201.21 billion. According to the chairman of IndiaN Biogas Association, the Global Biofuel Alliance is a $500 Billion opportunity. While taking into consideration the overall ecosystem which includes job creation, R&D, new industries set up etc. This presents a tremendous opportunity for India. This not only contribute to the global biofuel market but also reap the economic benefits that come with it. India’s commitment to a sustainable future is truly inspiring.

With its ambitious targets, advancements in biofuel blending, and the establishment of a biofuel alliance, the country is well on its way to becoming a global leader in renewable energy. The future looks bright, and India is leading the charge towards a greener and more sustainable world.

 Empowering The Future: World Biofuel Day


The importance of embracing cleaner and renewable energy sources becomes increasingly evident as the world faces climate change and energy sustainability challenges. The horizon is bright with hope – World Biofuel Day. This annual observance, celebrated on August 10th, highlights biofuels’ vital role in shaping a greener and more sustainable future. In this blog, we’ll delve into the significance of World Biofuel Day, explore the potential of biofuels, and understand how these remarkable energy sources drive us toward a cleaner and brighter tomorrow.

Understanding Biofuels: Nature’s Green Energy

Biofuels are renewable energy sources from organic materials, such as plants, agricultural waste, and algae. Unlike fossil fuels, which emit harmful greenhouse gases when burned, biofuels offer a cleaner and more sustainable alternative. They contribute significantly to reducing carbon emissions and mitigating the adverse effects of climate change.

The Significance of World Biofuel Day-A Growing Imperative

World Biofuel Day is a timely reminder of the pressing need to transition from traditional fossil fuels to more environmentally friendly and sustainable energy sources. Fossil fuels have powered human progress for centuries and have also been the driving force behind the rise in greenhouse gas emissions, global warming, and air pollution. Since these challenges escalate, exploring and embracing alternative energy sources becomes paramount. It serves as a platform to educate individuals, governments, and industries about the benefits of biofuels, encouraging them to adopt these eco-friendly alternatives.

Promoting Renewable Energy

At the heart of the significance of World Biofuel Day lies the promotion of renewable energy. Biofuels, derived from organic materials such as crops, agricultural residues, and stubble, offer a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Unlike their conventional counterparts, biofuels are carbon-neutral or even carbon-negative, meaning that the carbon dioxide released during their combustion is roughly equivalent to the amount absorbed during their growth. This characteristic makes biofuels a potent tool in the fight against climate change.

Mitigating Climate Change

One of the most significant contributions of biofuels is their potential to mitigate climate change. By reducing carbon emissions, biofuels play a crucial role in slowing down the pace of global warming. The combustion of biofuels releases carbon dioxide, offset by the absorption of carbon dioxide during the growth of the source materials. This closed-loop carbon cycle ensures that the net carbon emissions are substantially lower than fossil fuels.

Enhancing Energy Security

World Biofuel Day underscores the importance of enhancing energy security and reducing dependence on fossil fuel imports. Many countries rely heavily on imported oil and gas, leaving them vulnerable to supply disruptions and price fluctuations. Also by promoting biofuels, nations can diversify their energy sources and reduce their exposure to geopolitical uncertainties.

Boosting Agricultural Sustainability

Another layer of significance lies in the role of biofuels in promoting agricultural sustainability. Culturing crops for biofuel production can create a symbiotic relationship between energy and agriculture. By utilizing crops and agricultural residues for biofuel production, farmers can generate additional income streams while reducing waste and enhancing overall sustainability.

Economic Opportunities and Job Creation

World Biofuel Day celebrates the environmental benefits of biofuels and the economic opportunities they offer. The biofuel industry has the potential to stimulate economic growth, create jobs, and foster technological innovation too. From research and development to production and distribution, the biofuel sector can become a driving force in shaping sustainable economies.

Encouraging Research and Innovation

The observance of World Biofuel Day is a platform to encourage biofuel research and innovation. It highlights the importance of advancing technology, improving production processes, and finding novel ways to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of biofuel production. By fostering a culture of innovation, World Biofuel Day accelerates the development of sustainable energy solutions.

Spreading Awareness and Education

One of the most crucial aspects of World Biofuel Day is its role in spreading awareness and education. Mainly the observance provides an opportunity to educate the public, policymakers, and industries about the benefits of biofuels and their potential to revolutionize the energy landscape. World Biofuel Day ignites conversations and drives informed decision-making through workshops, seminars, and public outreach.

The Pillars of Biofuel Advancement

  1. Reducing Carbon Footprint: One of the most compelling benefits of biofuels is their ability to significantly lower carbon emissions. Unlike fossil fuels, biofuels release only the carbon dioxide the plants absorb during their growth, creating a closed-loop carbon cycle that contributes to net-zero emissions.
  2. Promoting Agricultural Sustainability: Biofuel production often utilises crops and agricultural waste as feedstock. Therefore these approach reduces waste and promotes sustainable land management practices, fostering a harmonious relationship between agriculture and energy production.
  3. Energy Security and Independence: By diversifying the energy mix with biofuels, nations can also reduce their dependence on imported fossil fuels, enhancing energy security and minimising vulnerability to geopolitical disruptions.
  4. Economic Growth and Rural Development: Biofuel production can stimulate rural economies by creating agriculture, transportation, and manufacturing jobs. Localized production of biofuels empowers communities and contributes to economic growth.

Biofuels in Action: Success Stories

  1. Biodiesel: Biodiesel, a renewable substitute for diesel fuel, is derived from vegetable oils, animal fats, and used cooking oil. It has gained traction in transportation and is being integrated into conventional diesel engines with minimal modifications.
  2. Ethanol: Ethanol, produced from crops like corn, sugarcane, and switchgrass, is used as an additive to gasoline. Flex-fuel vehicles can run on high-ethanol blends, reducing greenhouse gas emissions and enhancing fuel efficiency.
  3. Algal Biofuels: Algae, with its rapid growth and high oil content, holds the promise of being a game-changer in biofuel production. Similarly algal biofuels can be used in transportation and as fuel, offering a greener solution for the aviation industry.

Challenges and Future Outlook

While biofuels offer tremendous potential, they also face challenges that need to be addressed:

  1. Land Use and Food Security: Balancing biofuel production with food production is crucial. The responsible use of land and resources is essential to avoid negatively impacting global food security.
  2. Technology and Efficiency: Continuous research and innovation are needed to improve the efficiency of biofuel production processes and make them economically competitive with fossil fuels.
  3. Policy Support: Governments play a pivotal role in encouraging the adoption of biofuels through policy incentives, subsidies, and regulations that promote sustainable practices.

Celebrating Tomorrow’s Potential Today

As we approach World Biofuel Day, it’s a time for celebration and reflection. The progress made in the field of biofuels is commendable, and the potential they hold is awe-inspiring. Therefore by harnessing the power of nature’s green energy, Khaitan Bio Energy supports reshaping our energy landscape, reducing our carbon footprint, and paving the way for a more sustainable future.

Lighting the Path Ahead

World Biofuel Day holds multifaceted significance, from mitigating climate change and enhancing energy security to promoting agricultural sustainability and economic growth. This observance serves as a reminder that the journey toward a sustainable future is both possible and essential. As we embrace biofuels and renewable energy sources, we can chart a course toward a cleaner, greener, and more responsible energy future. On this World Biofuel Day, let us collectively commit to illuminating the path ahead and creating a brighter, more sustainable future for future generations. 

Transportation Fuels and Greenhouse Gases – Unveiling the Connection


The modern world thrives on the wheels of transportation, a dynamic network that connects people, places, and goods across the globe. However, this convenience comes at a steep environmental cost – the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from transportation fuels. This comprehensive exploration delves into the intricate relationship between transportation fuels and greenhouse gases, unraveling the science, understanding the impacts, tackling the challenges, and envisioning a future where sustainable mobility takes the lead.

The Greenhouse Gas Equation

Before diving into transportation fuels and greenhouse gases, let’s lay the groundwork by understanding the science behind this complex equation. Greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O), create a natural blanket around the Earth, allowing sunlight in while trapping heat. This greenhouse effect is essential for maintaining the planet’s habitable conditions. However, human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels, have released excess gases into the atmosphere, amplifying the greenhouse effect and leading to global warming.

The Fossil Fuel Connection

The transportation sector stands as a significant contributor to these emissions. At its core are fossil fuels – the lifeblood of vehicular movement. Gasoline and diesel, derived from ancient organic matter, are the predominant fuels that power cars, trucks, ships, airplanes, and trains. When these fuels combust, they release energy and a barrage of pollutants, including carbon dioxide. This carbon dioxide forms an intricate link between transportation fuels and the greenhouse gases that drive climate change.

The Ominous Impacts of Transportation Fuel Emissions

The convenience and interconnectedness brought about by modern transportation have undeniably transformed our world. Yet, as we speed down highways and soar through the skies, there’s a hidden cost that we can no longer afford to ignore: the profound impacts of transportation fuel emissions. In this blog, we’ll delve deep into the intricate web of consequences that arise from these emissions, touching on climate change, air quality, ecosystem disruption, and more. Moreover it’s time to lift the veil on the far-reaching effects of transportation fuel emissions and consider the urgent need for change.

Global Warming: Heating Up the Planet

At the forefront of the impacts of transportation fuel emissions is the specter of global warming. Carbon dioxide (CO2), the primary greenhouse gas emitted from burning fossil fuels, blankets the Earth’s atmosphere and traps heat, leading to a rise in average global temperatures. This upward trajectory spells disaster for ecosystems, ice caps, and weather patterns.

  1. Melting Ice and Rising Sea Levels: As temperatures climb, ice caps and glaciers melt at an alarming rate, contributing to rising sea levels that threaten coastal communities and low-lying areas.
  2. Extreme Weather Events: The warming climate fuels a surge in extreme weather events, including more intense hurricanes, heatwaves, and droughts, with devastating impacts on both human lives and natural habitats.
  3. Shifts in Ecosystems: Plant and animal species are struggling to adapt to rapidly changing conditions, leading to shifts in ecosystems that disrupt food chains and biodiversity.

Air Quality: A Breath of Concern

Transportation fuel emissions don’t just affect the climate; they also have immediate and tangible consequences for air quality.

  1. Particulate Matter and NOx: Besides CO2, vehicles emit pollutants such as nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter, which contribute to poor air quality. Also these pollutants can penetrate deep into the respiratory system, leading to respiratory illnesses and exacerbating conditions like asthma.
  2. Health Impacts: Communities living in close proximity to major transportation routes or congested urban areas bear the brunt of these emissions, experiencing higher rates of respiratory diseases and cardiovascular problems.

Ecosystem Disruption: Nature’s Delicate Balance

The intricate web of life on Earth is profoundly affected by transportation fuel emissions, with repercussions echoing through ecosystems.

  1. Habitat Alterations: Mainly changes in temperature and precipitation patterns disrupt habitats, forcing species to migrate or adapt to new conditions, leading to imbalances and potential extinctions.
  2. Ocean Acidification: The absorption of excess CO2 by oceans results in higher acidity, harming marine life such as coral reefs and shellfish, which are crucial components of ocean ecosystems.

Social and Economic Implications

The impacts of transportation fuel emissions extend beyond the environment, affecting societies and economies.

  1. Healthcare Costs: Poor air quality increases healthcare costs due to a rise in respiratory illnesses and related medical treatments.
  2. Infrastructure Damage: Extreme weather events caused by climate change can damage transportation infrastructure, leading to expensive repairs and disruptions in daily life.
  3. Displacement and Migration: As sea levels rise and extreme weather events become more frequent, vulnerable communities may face displacement and migration, placing further strain on resources.

Towards a Greener Path: Solutions and Mitigation

As dire as the impacts of transportation fuel emissions may seem, there is a glimmer of hope. A transition to cleaner transportation options offers a pathway to mitigation.

  1. Electric Mobility: Electric vehicles (EVs) are emerging as a key solution, producing zero tailpipe emissions and reducing the overall carbon footprint of transportation.
  2. Biofuels and Hydrogen: Sustainable biofuels and hydrogen can replace traditional fossil fuels, offering cleaner alternatives for various modes of transportation.
  3. Public Transportation and Active Mobility: Promoting mass transit, cycling, and walking reduces the number of individual fossil-fueled vehicles on the road, curbing emissions.
  4. Policy and Regulation: Governments play a vital role in driving change through incentives, regulations, and emissions standards that encourage the adoption of cleaner transportation fuels.

Navigating Towards Change

The impacts of transportation fuel emissions are far-reaching and interconnected, affecting climate, air quality, ecosystems, and society. As we hurtle forward into an uncertain future, the time has come for collective action. Embracing cleaner transportation alternatives, supporting technological innovation, and advocating for policy changes are essential steps on the road to a more sustainable world. The choice is ours to make – to either continue down the path of environmental degradation or veer towards a greener horizon where the ripples of change create a wave of positive transformation for generations to come. The journey may be challenging, but the destination is worth every effort.

The Hurdles on the Road to Sustainability

While the consequences are clear, addressing transportation fuel emissions is a Herculean task laden with challenges:

  1. Infrastructure and Technology: Transitioning to cleaner alternatives like electric vehicles (EVs) requires significant investments in charging infrastructure and leaps in battery technology to extend their range and reduce charging times.
  2. Behavioral Transformation: Encouraging a societal shift from conventional vehicles to greener modes of transportation necessitates technological advancements and shifts in consumer behavior and preferences.
  3. Economic Considerations: The fossil fuel industry wields economic and political influence, making transitioning to cleaner fuels a complex and sensitive issue.

Innovative Solutions and Sustainable Horizons

While challenges persist, a ray of hope shines through innovative solutions:

  1. Electric Mobility: Electric vehicles (EVs) have emerged as a game-changer. By drawing power from renewable sources, EVs produce zero tailpipe emissions, significantly reducing the carbon footprint.
  2. Biofuels and Hydrogen: Sustainable biofuels, derived from organic materials, and hydrogen, a clean-burning fuel, offer potential as cleaner alternatives to traditional gasoline and diesel.
  3. Enhanced Public Transportation and Active Mobility: A focus on mass transit, cycling, and walking promotes sustainable, efficient travel while reducing the reliance on individual fossil-fueled vehicles.
  4. Policy and Regulation: Governments hold the key to accelerating the transition by implementing incentives, regulations, and emissions standards that encourage the adoption of cleaner transportation fuels.
  5. Advancements in Technology: Ongoing research leads to constant improvements in fuel efficiency, aerodynamics, and hybrid technologies, offering ways to reduce emissions further.

Charting For a Greener Path

The nexus of transportation fuels and greenhouse gases is a pivotal crossroads in the journey toward a sustainable future. As the world grapples with the urgent need to address climate change, transportation becomes all the more critical. We can steer our trajectory toward a brighter and more sustainable tomorrow by embracing cleaner transportation options, investing in technological innovations, and forging a collective commitment to change. The road ahead is challenging, but it is a journey that promises a planet safeguarded from the devastating effects of climate change. The clock is ticking, and the time to act is now. Together, we can make a difference, steering humanity away from the brink and onto a path of hope, renewal, and enduring prosperity for generations to come.

Lignin Valorization

In the last decade, lignocelluloses have drawn the scientific community’s attention as a rich resource for 2G ethanol production and other by-products. This is highly important because of many reasons. It mainly include climate change concerns. Also the risks of interruptions in food supply chains in various parts of the world are becoming more urgent. In this circular economy, lignin valorization in biorefineries serve as the highly suitable industrial platform to develop the essential chemical changes.

Biorefineries are defined by the IEA as the sustainable processing of residual biomass into a wide range of bio-based products. It mainly includes food, feed, materials, chemicals etc and bioenergy like fuels, power, heat etc. Furthermore, the main goal of the biorefineries are the complete valorization of stubble. Thereby lowering the environmental pollution through an alternative energy or materials and to achieve less dependency on fossil-based fuels and materials.
Regarding the lignocellulosic biorefineries, there are still important limitations that still make them non-cost-competitive.

The first commercial lignocellulosic ethanol production facility started in the U.S (2013). Initially plan consists of the construction of 5 lignocellulosic ethanol plants from 2013 to 2016. However only one ethanol plant was in operation in 2019. Moreover, the maximum lignocellulosic ethanol production from this biomass source peaked in 2018 at 15 million gallons. Far behind the expected target of 7 billion gallons expected. As a result of the ability to produce low to high-value compounds on a large and stable basis from lignin. Lignocellulosic biorefineries could potentially become more economically viable. Also competitive by offering a diverse range of products instead of just methanol.

Conversion of lignin

 Definition of Lignin and its features

Lignin is the complex chemical compound most derived from biomass. It is a set of non-sugar molecules acting like glue to hold the fibres. It is a chemical bond of carbohydrate materials, occurs throughout the cell wall, and fills the spaces in it. Lignin is the main component of lignocellulosic biomass, making up about 15-30% of its weight. The three main monomers consists of almost all lignin found in nature are:

  • p-Coumaryl alcohol-minor component of stubble
  • Coniferyl alcohol-mainly found in softwoods
  • Sinapyl alcohol-building blocks of hardwood lignins

Considering the chemical structure of lignin, it is composed of three primary phenylpropane units or hydroxyl cinnamyl alcohols. It mainly consists of guaiacyl propanol (G), syringyl propanol (S) and p-hydroxyphenyl propanol (H). These all link through various chemical bonds. Although the phenylpropane units have similar chemical structures, their differences rely mainly on the quantity of substitution of methoxy functional compounds.


  • Adhesive of wood
  • Binds the fibres
  • Provides rigidity and toxicity to the wood
  • It is the most slowly decomposing component of biomass, contributing a significant part of the material that becomes humus as it decomposes.

Uses and Properties: 

 The lignin adds compressive strength and hardness to the cell wall of plants and have a major role in the evolution of greens by suporting them to withstand the gravitational force. It also waterproofs the plant’s cell wall, supporting the upward movement of water in xylem tissues. Lastly, lignin has antifungal properties and often rapidly deposits in response to fungal infection, protecting the plants from the diffusion of toxic fungal enzymes.

Lignin is removed from wood pulp in manufacturing paper. It is mainly by treatment with chemical agents such as sulfur dioxide, sodium sulfide, or Sodium hydroxide. 

Particleboard and similar laminated or composite wood products contain lignin as a binding agent, as a soil conditioner, as a filler or as an active ingredient of phenolic resins, and as a linoleum adhesive. Vanillin (synthetic vanilla) and dimethyl sulfoxide are also made from lignin.

The main properties of lignin include:

  • Highly stable material. So it requires treatment with solid alkali at high temperatures.
  • Stable with acids
  • Oxidizing agent
  • lignin structure is complex.

Sustainability of lignin valorization

Lignin is the second rich biopolymer in stubble, with high potential as a source of many aromatic chemicals and compounds required for construction. Over-exploitation of lignin can raise the profitability of many lignocellulosic biorefineries and the production of biobased products that can contribute to reducing greenhouse gas emissions from those of equivalent fossil fuel-based processes. However, one of the main obstacles to the full exploitation of biobased materials is the complex structural variation of isolated lignins due to the natural variability of biomass feedstocks and the differences in biorefinery layouts: The distribution of molecular weights, the distribution of available groups, and the residual impurities are all affected.

Large volume and low specific value applications of lignin include producing energy and biofuels. In contrast, small-volume and higher value-added applications include the production of chemicals through lignin depolymerization and specific functionalization.

Future of Lignin Valorization

While the most common lignin from the pulp paper industry currently accounts for 170 tons/year, additional important current lignin include lignosulfonates, alkali lignin, acid hydrolysis lignin, steam explosion lignin and organosolve lignin. The development of novel pretreatment technologies at the industrial scale, such as steam-assisted pretreatment or solvent-assisted biomass fractionation, has led to novel lignins from novel feedstocks with characteristics suitable for more targeted potential applications.

The current review consists of the analysis of the available technical lignin with a special focus on lignins stemming from new technologies and producers, including market volumes at the global level. At the European level, many projects have been funded in the last ten years for the conversion of lignins to final products.

There are many challenges facing biorefineries, including novel and sustainable approaches to lignocellulose fractionation, treatment, transformation, and commercialization of the final products, as well as resolving a number of constraints that affect lignin treatment/transformation. This blog highlights the main restraints for industrial lignin valorization in light of its abundance as stubble and the sustability of lignin valolrization and its potential applications in different industries. In addition, lignin depolymerization propose a flexible and potentially resilient platform under instabilities in the market. Furthermore, Khaitan is implementing the essential technological tools to accelerate scientific breakthroughs in lignin research and the development of lignin for use as a source of fuels and materials in the future

Lignocellulosic biomass

 How lignocellulosic biomass support sustainability

One of the most abundant resources in this world is biomass. Biomass consists of three primary materials such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Therefore, biomass can consider as a lignocellulosic material. Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) has dormant supremacy in defeating the present/future energy dilemma. This is due to the steady exhaustion of non-renewable fossil fuels. Lignocellulose also helps generate a wide range of bio-based chemicals and biofuels as sustainable feedstock. In addition to being polymers of sugars, cellulose and hemicellulose are using for sugar fermentation or converting sugars into products. Lignin is a polymer compound which contains phenolic compounds. Rice husk/stubble is one of the biomass with a high order of lignin. It has unique characteristics because of its silica content.

Khaitan bio energy uses high efficient techniques for lignin and silica extraction. It is done during the lignin isolation process following enzymatic saccharification. The technology has been so as to establish an end to end process for a self sustained integrated biorefinery. Most importantly it focusses a “Zero discharge facility”. 

 Khaitan bioenergy estimates to produce that tons of bioethanol yearly from lignocellulosic biomass obtained from stubble residues alone.

Simple diagrammatic view of Biomass – Fuel Conversion

Lignin and silica as by product

Among various biomass sources, the stubble primarily consists of cellulose (35–45%), hemicellulose (20–25%). Whereas the presence of lignin is 15–20% along with a high amount of silica and ash (10–15 %). Looking forward the production purposes of the paddy field are increasing. This results in 1.1–1.3 times straw as agro-residue in the last years. Eventhough available at a large scale and a low-cost source, stubble is still underutilised due to the high presence of silica, making it chemically and biochemically resistant (indigestible b). This leads to piling up in landfills and burning the field, causing substantial air and soil pollution. 

In order o highlight the value of rice straw, converting it into high-value chemicals and fuels is an encouraging approach. However, the pretreatment of stubble is the bottleneck of the process to derange the unmanageable nature for bringing out sugar ompounds or other target chemicals. The method of acid hydrolysis is implemented in the pre treatment. Through this process, lignin and silica are simultaneously undergoes extraction to enhance holocellulose content and accessibility in the final product and produce selectively target chemicals.

The intricate nature of the composition of stubble is due to the rigid cell wall and the proximity of lignin and hemicellulose. Thus, holocellulose expects to disintegrate by chemical or biological pretreatments.This fantastic product of evolutionary developments has long shown potential as a highly sustainable and renewable source of fuels and materials.

The main use of Lignin for the manufacturing of biofuel or other useful compounds by two ways. Firstly by uncoupling lignin polymer from other cell wall polymers and secondly by exploiting the properties of lignin polymer for biofuel or for the production of other commercially useful products. Whereas Silica is widely used as a proppant. It holds open the fractures created by hydraulic fracturing allowing oil and gas to flow out of the formation.

Lignocellulose – A vital source to produce high-value marketable, and sustainable products.

Recently there has been a rise in research interest in the value or revaluation of lignocellulose-based materials due to increasing scientific knowledge, global economic and environmental awareness, legislative demands, and the manufacture, use, and removal of petrochemical-based by-products. The application of green technologies to extract and transform biomass-based carbohydrates, lignin, oils and other materials into a broader spectrum of marketable and value-added products with a zero-waste approach is a remarkable review.

Recognizing sources of biofuels such as biodiesel and biochar can reduce the environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Biofuels can also counter the raising demand of fossil resources and reduce reliance on non-renewable sources. However, it is essential to implement practical, scientific and robust tools to evaluate the exact advantages of using biofuels over conventional energy sources. Life cycle assessment has been identified as a comprehensive evaluation approach. This is to measure environmental impacts over the entire manufacturing chain of biofuels.

Bio-based economies have been the subject of significant research efforts. The main focus is to transform petroleum-based economies into socially acceptable, environmentally friendly, and comprehensively sustainable ones.

There is currently an intensive research effort in bio-refineries to develop sustainable and eco-efficient products to compete in the petroleum-based product market. Currently the energy reserves is becoming more and more difficult to access. Inorder to diversify the energy mix, Khaitan Bio energy operate in today’s most demanding environment enabling the transition to a more sustainable energy

H2, EV and Biofuel

The automobile industry is a core sector with inspiring success stories. The automobile industry’s estimated annual production is 22.93 million in FY 2022. It contributes 49% of India’s manufacturing GDP and 7.5 per cent to the country’s GDP. Further, Automotive manufacturers are seeking alternative methods to power cars and other vehicles to reduce carbon emissions and fossil fuel use. Such initiatives have driven the industry to launch vehicles adapted to biofuel, electricity, and Hydrogen.

What to know about 3 types of Fuel Alternatives

Resources like water, natural gas, fossil fuels, or biomass are the traditional raw materials for fueling a vehicle, which is now in limited supply. However, hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe. Hence, Hydrogen cars (FCEVs) are those cars that have characteristics of both electric vehicles and conventional petrol cars. These cars produce electricity by allowing hydrogen to react with oxygen to create the chemical production of electricity and water vapour. Hydrogen cars are much faster to refuel than electric cars, reducing atmospheric pollutants’ emissions.

Electric vehicles (BEVs) are either partially or fully powered by electric power. EVs run on a lithium-ion battery, charged by plugging into a socket or any other charging unit. They are eco-friendly vehicles that can accelerate faster than vehicles with traditional fuel engines. Moreover, they are cheaper, noiseless engines that produce no exhaust fumes and are more reliable than hydrogen-powered vehicles. Globally, the Government have been investing in infrastructure for electric cars. There is widespread availability of charging stations in petrol pumps, motorway rest stops, shopping centres and even on specific streets for convivence and ease of access.

Biofuel is a renewable energy source from organic matter like wood, straw, sludge, sewage, vegetable oil, etc. It helps maintain a healthier and cleaner environment since there is no emission of hazardous gases, such as Carbon monoxide (CO) or Sulphur oxide (SO), thereby reducing the risk of global warming. Biofuel can be classified into first, second, and third generations based on their feedstock and production technology.

Differences between H2 and EV


Hydrogen vehicles offer a higher range and faster refuelling when compared to electric vehicles. For, e.g. the Hyundai Nexo can manage 414 miles and only takes five minutes to fill up. The range of EVs is highly dependent on their vehicle. For instance, expensive cars like Tesla Model S have a range of 375 miles compared to a real-world range of 150 miles for the less expensive Nissan Leaf Acenta.

Availability of Charging/Refuelling Station

Hydrogen cars have less infrastructure, with only around 400 refuelling stations across the globe. Currently, In comparison, EVs have thousands of charging stations worldwide.

Cost of Ownership

Currently hydrogen cars are costly, with no affordable options in the market. But overall expense of FCEV’s can be lesser in comparison to BEV’s. On the other hand, the cost of an EV depends on the model and manufacturer.


Hydrogen is a safer alternative than conventional fuels in a multitude of aspects. Also, hydrogen is non-toxic, unlike traditional fuels. But safety concerns are still based on its flammable nature when stored in bulk. Electric vehicles have insulated high-voltage lines and safety features that deactivate the electrical system when they detect a collision or short circuit. All-electric cars tend to have a lower centre of gravity than conventional vehicles, making them more stable and less likely to roll over.


Many conventional fuels are toxic or contain poisonous substances. These include potent carcinogens responsible for the increased risk of human cancer cell growth. But there are no greenhouse gas emissions from hydrogen. In the case of EVs, it has zero tailpipe emission as it runs on electricity.

Difference Between EV and Biofuel


An electric vehicle with no friction between moving parts or exchanges between liquids and gases needs neither lubricant nor exhaust. Stationary fuel cells, in particular, need very little maintenance, with servicing required once every one to three years.


Though electric vehicles are not 100% green, they produce a fraction of the greenhouse gases and waste that a combustion engine car does. They even compared it to biofuel vehicles. The only greenhouse gases produced are in the actual manufacturing of the car and the emissions produced from the power plants supplying electricity to your home where your car vehicle is plugged in.


The downsides are that there is a strict limit to how many miles can be traveled in a day on a full charge before needing to recharge. With biofuels, there is no limit since you can refuel in seconds compared to hours with an electric vehicle.

Availability & Accessibility

Biofuels are a renewable energy source. Because biofuels are derived from plant matter (and occasionally animal matter) that can be harvested annually or, in the case of algae, monthly, biofuels are theoretically unlimited. But in India, biofuel blending can only thrive as a fuel when it has a necessary infrastructure facility for extraction, production and distribution. However, the Union minister of India has addressed the necessity of flex-fuel vehicles and imposed a mandatory option towards automakers to offer cars that run on 100% biofuels within a few months. Electric vehicles are more accessible due to government policies to boost e-mobility and thus promote the development of a charging infrastructure network. There are currently over 10,76,420 electric vehicles and 1,742 Public Charging Stations (PCS) operational in the country.


Biofuel adaptive vehicles, also known as flex-fuel vehicles, are currently a concept but can be a real deal after a few months. Thus, the fuel price of bioethanol, a type of biofuel, would be Rs. 65 against the current petrol price of Rs.110. In contrast, electric cars in India, priced accordingly, include Tata Tiago EV (₹ 8.49 Lakh), Tata Nexon EV (₹ 14.99 Lakh) and Mercedes-Benz EQS (₹ 1.55+ Crore). Electric two-wheelers are priced from 50,000 to 2 Lakh.

Difference Between H2 and Biofuel


Hydrogen, after processing, generates electrical power in a fuel cell, emitting only water vapour and warm air. It holds promise for growth in both the stationary and transportation energy sectors. Emissions from biofuel, such as Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, particulate matter and other hydrocarbons, are much less than conventional fuel.


Hydrogen is cheap, and its combustion produces only water (no CO2). It has three times as much energy as an equivalent quantity of petrol. Current green hydrogen production costs range anywhere between ₹320 and ₹330 per kilogram in India. It can reduce to as low as ₹160-170 per kg by 2030, bringing parity with grey hydrogen and other fossil fuels. But hydrogen contains less energy per unit volume than all other fuels. Transporting, storing, and delivering it to the end-use point is more expensive per gasoline gallon. The average price of ethanol and biodiesel in India is Rs.70 per litre. However, there is a substantial difference in these prices among countries as well as states.


The transport sector, railways, and aviation is the major end-user of biodiesel, and bioethanol. It can also be found in automobiles, energy production, the chemical industry, etc. However, bioethanol production from fourth-generation feedstock is still in the embryonic stage. With India’s prime energy demand is to be doubled by 2040 and thus the demand of biofuel would increase as a result.

Based on FY 2021- quarterly update, India’s biodiesel market demand stood at 0.17 million tonnes despite major setbacks due to the pandemic induced disruption in supply chains. The report predicted a healthy growth of 8.60 per cent CAGR until 2030, with a forecasted demand set to reach 0.26 million tonnes. Also, for hydrogen induced fuel showcases similar growth potential as the cumulative value of the green hydrogen market in India could be $8 billion by 2030 and $340 billion by 2050. Electrolyser market size could be approximately $5 billion by 2030 and $31 billion by 2050.


Hydrogen is difficult to store due to its low volumetric energy density. It is the lightest of all elements, more delicate than helium, and quickly lost into the atmosphere. The onboard hydrogen storage systems expense is too high, particularly in comparison with conventional storage systems for petroleum fuels.

But in contrast, the storage of pure biodiesel from vegetable oil is to be safely kept at 45° to 50°F. In cold climates, Above-ground tanks may need to be heated or insulated, depending on the location. Also, biodiesel should not be stored or transported in copper, brass, bronze, lead, tin, or zinc because these metals will hasten degradation. If biodiesel is held for about four to five months, a stability additive to be used, especially in more southern climates due to increased temperature and humidity. Ethanol also tends to absorb water from the surrounding environment—stored in dry areas with low humidity. Ethanol will absorb any condensation that forms inside storage vessels.


The biomass feedstock required for biofuel are more expensive than petroleum. Also the processes for producing the fuel aren’t yet efficient enough to produce it very cheaply. But as of current scenarios in the year 2021, The United States was the leading biofuel producer in the world, with production amounting to 1,436 petajoules. Brazil and Indonesia ranked second and third, with figures at roughly 840 and 312 petajoules, respectively. By comparison, Germany’s biofuel production reached around 121 petajoules, placing the country amongst the top five countries in biofuel production, and the leading producer in Europe.

Bioethanol vs Biodiesel

When fossil fuels are used, they produce gaseous emissions that contribute to global warming. As a result, alternative green energies derived from food residues, agricultural leftovers, or industrial food residues should be considered for sustainable development. Because of the continual increase in waste, converting waste to alternative energies or biofuels is a beneficial element. Traditional waste disposal methods, such as landfilling or incineration, produce greenhouse gases. Lignocellulose sources containing carbohydrate polymers and lignin are used to produce biofuels. These components are used as feedstock in manufacturing chemical materials, biofuel, biomethane, and biohydrogen, which are alternatives to fossil fuels. Various pretreatment methods and modern technologies are available to improve the biodegradation of various bio-waste or lignocellulose biomass which helps to convert bio-waste to biofuel (bioethanol, biodiesel, and biogas). Many academics worldwide have been developing alternative energy (biofuel) production technologies to replace fossil fuels by lowering the economic cost of bio-waste pretreatment.

Bioethanol is a type of alcohol derived from grain crops. The alcohol is primarily produced through the fermentation of existing carbohydrates in starch or sugar crops. Furthermore, cellulosic biomass is being researched as a source of ethanol production. Transesterification is used to create biodiesel from vegetable oil and animal fat. Bioethanol is similar to gasoline (Petrol), but biodiesel is identical to fossil diesel. Pure biodiesel and bioethanol can be used as fuel in vehicles with adapted engines. Although biodiesel is typically used as a fossil fuel additive, bioethanol is commonly used as a gasoline additive.


The first generation, second generation, and third generation of biofuels are divided based on the feedstock used to make ethanol or biodiesel. Additionally, the term “Advanced Biofuels” is frequently used to refer to innovative biofuel production techniques that utilise waste materials as feedstock, including garbage, used cooking oil, and animal fats.


First-generation biomass, a food source, is utilised to make ethanol and biodiesel. Food crops that are biochemically classified as carbohydrates are used to ferment sugar or starch to produce ethanol. In contrast to corn, the primary source of starch, sugar comes mostly from sugarcane. Wheat, barley, and sugar beets can also make first-generation ethanol in addition to cane and maise. First-generation biodiesel is made from oils such as soybean, rapeseed (canola), sunflower, and palm.


Non-edible sources of biomass are used to create second-generation ethanol and biodiesel. Specific biofuel crops, agricultural residues, and wood chips are all sources of second-generation ethanol. These resources are biochemically classified as lignocellulosic materials. Most of the non-edible oils used to make second-generation biodiesel originate from jatropha. Other small sources include Jojoba, Karanja, moringa, castor, soapnut, and cottonseed oils.


Algae, a single-celled organism, is frequently used to make third-generation ethanol and biodiesel. Typically, algae are divided into groups according to the environments in which they live, such as freshwater, marine, or wastewater habitats. A particular alga is picked depending on its capabilities to produce ethanol or biodiesel.


The production of ethanol and biodiesel involves various biological and chemical procedures. Fermentation and transesterification are the primary processes for making ethanol and biodiesel. Thus, ethanol is produced by fermenting any biomass rich in carbohydrates (sugar, starch, or cellulose) using a method equivalent to beer brewing.
Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch to fermentable sugar occurs before fermentation in the first-generation ethanol manufacturing process. Cellulose is dissociated from the lignocellulosic structure during the production of second and third-generation ethanol utilising a variety of pretreatments.

In theory, making biodiesel is less complicated than making ethanol. The oil is initially extracted from all three types of biodiesel feedstocks. The oil is then transesterified to create biodiesel. Transesterification is a chemical reaction in which an ester reacts with an alcohol to generate another ester and another alcohol. Triglyceride oils (esters) are then blended with methanol (alcohol) to produce biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters) and glycerin (alcohol).



  • Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) First Generation Program: From 1st January 2003, the Government of India decided to supply ethanol mixed fuel in nine states. Four union territories for the sale of 5% ethanol blended Petrol. The EBP Program aims to achieve several goals, including reducing import dependency, conserving foreign exchange, lowering carbon emissions, and boosting the agriculture sector.
  • The Department of Food and Public Distribution (DFPD) sent a statement to the Cabinet on 25th September 2007, which was reviewed by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) during its meeting on 9th October 2007. In this meeting, the CCEA opted for 5% mandatory ethanol-to-petrol blending and 10% optional blending by October 2007, and 10% mandatory blending by October 2008.
  • Low availability and state-specific issues had slowed EBP Program success. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy’s (MNRE) previous National Policy on Biofuels – 2009 permitted ethanol production from non-food feedstock such as molasses, celluloses, and lignocelluloses. On 2nd January 2013, a Gazette Notification was released directing OMCs to sell blended ethanol gasoline with an ethanol content of up to 10% as per BIS Specification to reach 5% ethanol blending across the country.
  • As of 31st March 2019, the EBP Program was being implemented in 21 states and four union territories following the partition of Andhra Pradesh and the formation of the new state of Telangana. Also, Public Sector OMCs were buying ethanol from suppliers and selling up to 10% ethanol mixed gasoline.
  • The Government of India launched the “Pradhan Mantri DIVAN (Jaiv lndhan – Vatavaran Anukool fasal awashesh Nivaran) Yojana” on 28th February 2019 as a tool to create 2G Ethanol capacity in the country to encourage the 2G Ethanol sector and support this emerging industry by creating a suitable ecosystem for setting up commercial projects and increasing R&D. On 8th March 2019, the scheme was published in the Extraordinary Gazette of India.


  • The MoPNG established a Biodiesel Purchase Policy in October 2005 to promote biodiesel production in the country, which went into effect on 1st January 2006. OMCs must purchase Biodiesel (B 100) that meets the BIS fuel quality criterion for 5% blending with HSD from authorised procurement centres across the country under this regulation.
  • The Cabinet approved on 16th January 2015 to allow the direct sale of Biodiesel (B 100) to all consumers by private Biodiesel makers and their authorised dealers. Also, the Joint Ventures of Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) approved by MoPNG.
  • The Motor Spirit and High-Speed Diesel (Regulation of Supply, Distribution and Prevention of Malpractices) Order, 2005 was amended on 10th August 2015, allowing the direct sale of Biodiesel (B100) to Bulk Consumers such as Railways, State Road Transport Corporations, etc. On 10th August 2015, a few retail outlets (petroleum pumps) across the nation began selling mixed biodiesel, which oil marketing companies also introduced.
  • Later, on 29th June 2017, MoP86NG issued Gazette notification No. GSR 728 (E) amending the Motor Spirit and High-Speed Diesel (Regulation of Supply, Distribution, and Prevention of Malpractices) Order, 2005, stating that the Central Government may permit the direct sale of biodiesel (B100) for blending with high-speed diesel to all consumers, subject to the conditions specified in the notification.
  • In March 2016, the ISO 15607 Biodiesel (B100) — Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (Fame) —Specification was modified with the following Scope: “This standard specifies the sample and testing requirements and techniques for biodiesel (B100) — fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for use in compression ignition engines intended for use as a stand-alone fuel and as a blend stock for diesel fuel. The B 100 stand-alone can also be utilised for heating and industrial engines.
  • In December 2017, BIS updated ISO 1460 (Automotive Diesel Fuel Specification) as “ISO 15607 biodiesel (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, FAME) can be blended with automobile diesel fuel for up to 7% (v/v)”.


The average calorie consumption is rising along with the global population growth, increasing the demand for rare arable land while raising the energy needs of developing countries. Most likely, biofuel or other alternative renewable sources will be required to supply the extra gasoline. However, rising feedstock prices have restricted biodiesel and bioethanol production. Feedstock accounts for a sizable amount of the cost of producing bioethanol and biodiesel. Large-scale farming for bioethanol and biodiesel feedstock requires much arable land. In this sense, unlike bioethanol, there is no requirement for all biodiesel feedstock to be deforested to free up land for feedstock supplies.

Government support, global trade, and technological advances can continuously lower the economic cost of eventual biofuel production, making it more competitive with fossil fuels. Rising oil prices have provided financial support for biodiesel and bioethanol in recent years. The majority of bioethanol and biodiesel feedstock production is for food feedstock, which has the potential to deplete food supplies. As a result, the global debate between food and fuel demands may heat up. Biodiesel was chosen over bioethanol due to non-food feedstock outputs such as jatropha and algae. Large amounts are necessary for large-scale bioethanol and biodiesel feedstock cultivation.