Solutions to Climate Changes

After decades of ferocious exploration, scientists has recognized a great deal regarding the climate system and the effects people are having on it. Scientific substantiation relating to climate change spans variety of fields of study and includes work from the knockouts of thousands of scientists. Scientists have strictly assessed and singly corroborated the substantiation hundreds of times, as described in this memo.

Three broad conclusions affect comprehensive assessments of scientific substantiation:

  1. People are causing the climate to change, mainly due to hothouse gas emigrations.
  2. Mortal-induced climate change is dangerous, and the consequences are potentially dire.
  3. We’ve numerous options for reducing the impacts of climate change.

These conclusions come from multiple lines of substantiation.

Solutions form Various Sectors

Options to lower the consequences of climate change generally fall into four fields:

Mitigation

 — sweats to reduce hothouse gas emigrations.

Mitigation reduces our future emissions of GHG to the atmosphere. This will affect lower human disturbance of the climate system– the amount that climate will change because of our emissions– and increases the chances that climate change will be manageable. Approaches to reducing emissions fall into several orders. These include
1) regulation;
2) exploration, development, and deployment of new technologies;
3) preservation of energy or land;
4) sweats to increase public mindfulness;
5) positive impulses to encourage choices that lower emigration;
6) increasing the cost of utilizing the atmosphere to dispose of greenhouse gases.
This last approach is particularly noteworthy because it anticipates to beget a broad-reaching reduction in emigration. It has entered a great deal of attention from the exploration community and is a focus of policy conversations. It can also be anticipated to induce net benefits by correcting a request failure( that emitters presently can use the atmosphere without paying for the cost of climate damage that they spawn).

Adaption

 — adding society’s capacity to manage climate change.

Adaption involves the structure’s capacity to avoid, repel, and recover from climate change impacts. It includes regulating to reduce vulnerability, planning disaster recovery, assessing the effects of critical systems and resources etc. It also ensures compliance and monitoring, relocating vulnerable populations and resources. These are examples of ways to minimize compounding stresses. Mainly it concern about traditional air pollution, niche loss and decline, invasive species, species demolitions, and nitrogen deposits.

Geoengineering or Earth manipulation 

— new, deliberate intervention in the Earth system that tries to offset some of the impacts of hothouse gas emigrations.

Geoengineering or Earth manipulation, if feasible, might help lower greenhouse gas attention. Offset the global warming influence of Greenhouse gas emissions, address specific climate change impacts, or offer despair strategies in the event we need them. Geoengineering also creates pitfalls because attempts to alter the Earth’s system could lead to unintended and negative consequences. Two approaches admit the utmost attention reflecting the sun to space to neutralize hothouse gas warming and carbon remmoval( rooting carbon dioxide from the air and storing it deep in the ground or ocean). Carbon removal to match hu an emission isn’t presently possible. Reflecting sun would not address all consequences of hothouse gas emigration (e.g. ocean acidification).

Research

 sweats to further understand the climate system, our impact on it, the consequences, or the response options themselves.

Research works includes Exploration, compliances, scientific assessment, and technology development. It can increase understanding of the Earth system. Similarly it reveal pitfalls or openings associated with the climate system, and support decision-making concerning climate change. The new knowledge could reveal new spaces for reducing the consequences of climate change. And thus help with the early discovery of successes and failures. As a result, programs to expand the knowledge base can bolster and support our responses to climate change.

Climate change is at the forefront of the political sphere as we head into 2023 and with the new administration. There is, however, a complex aspect to climate change, and it has the potential to overwhelm us. The reality is that real solutions will require action on a global scale in order to be implemented. But you can still make small changes in your day-to-day life in order to make a positive impact on the environment.

Renewable powers

We have to change our sources of energy to clean and renewable energy. Solar, Wind, Geothermal and biomass are among those. The main challenge is barring the burning of coal, oil and, ultimately, natural gas. The citizens of richer nations eat, wear, work, play and indeed sleep on the products made from renewable energies. And population developing nations want and arguably earn the same comforts, largely thanks to the energy stored in similar energies.
Oil is the lubricant of global frugality and fundamental to consumers and goods transportation. Coal is the main source, supplying roughly half of the electricity used worldwide. There are no exact results for reducing dependence on fossil energies. As an illustration, carbon-neutral biofuels can drive up the price of food and lead to timber destruction. While nuclear power doesn’t emit hothouse feasts, it produces radioactive waste, so every bit counts.

Reforestation

Every time, 33 million acres of timbers are cut down. Timber harvesting in the tropics contributes1.5 billion metric tons of carbon to the atmosphere. It shows 20 per cent of man- made GHG emissions and a source that could be avoided fairly fluently.
Better agricultural practices along with paper recycling and timber operation should be take. Balancing the quantity of wood taken out with the number of new trees growing could be a solution to control the climate changes.

Electricity

Believe it or not, utmost people have to spend further amount on electricity to power bias when off than when on. Stereo outfit, computers, battery dishes and a host of other widgets and appliances consume further energy when switched off, so better unplug them.
Purchasing energy-effective widgets can also save energy and money — therefore precluding further Climate changes. To take but one illustration, effective battery dishes could save further than one billion kilowatt- hours of electricity —$ 100 million at current electricity prices and therefore help the release of further than one million metric tons of green house gases.

Population

Currently, there are at least 6.6 billion people living, a number prognosticated by the United Nations to rise by at least nine billion by the middle of the century. TheU.N. Environmental Program estimates it requires 54 acres to sustain an average population — food, apparel and other coffers uprooted from the earth. Continuing similar population growth seems unsustainable.

Biofuels

Biofuels can have numerous negative impacts, from adding food prices to stinking up more energy than they produce. Hydrogen must be created, taking either reforming natural gas or electricity to crack water into molecules. Biodiesel hybrid electric vehicles which can plug into the grid overnightmay offer a better transportation result in the short term. Given the energy viscosity of diesel and the carbon-neutral ramifications of energy from shops, as well as the emigrations of electric machines. A recent study set up that the present quantum of electricity could give enough energy for the entire line of motorcars to switch to plug- in hybrids, as a solution to climate changes.

Reduce Consumption

The easiest way to reduce green house gas emissions is to buy lower stuff. Whether by abstaining an machine or employing a applicable grocery sack, cutting back on consumption results in smaller fossil energies being burned to prize, produce and transport products around the globe.
suppose green when making purchases. For case, if you’re in the request for a new auto, buy one that will last the long and have the least impact on the planet. Therefore, a used vehicle with a mongrel machine offers superior energy effectiveness over the long haul while saving the environmental impact of new auto manufacturing.

Sustainable Transportation

Our transport styles must be aligned with environmental conditions and reduce their carbon footmark. We must reevaluate our transport styles from the design stage towardseco-friendly transportation. Transportation is the alternate leading source of GHG gas emissions in theU.S.( burning a single gallon of gasoline produces 20 pounds of CO2). But it does not have to be that way.
One way to dramatically dock transportation energy needs is to move closer to work, use mass conveyance, or switch to walking, cycling or some other mode of transport that doesn’t bear anything other than mortal energy. There’s also the option of working from home and telecommuting several days a week.
Cutting down on long- distance trip would also help, most specially airplane breakouts, one of the fastest growing sources of GHG gas emissions and a source that arguably releases similar emigrations in the worst possible spot( advanced in the atmosphere). Flight travels are also one of the many sources of global- warming pollution for which there is not a feasible volition. The jets calculate on kerosene because it packs the most energy per pound, allowing them to travel far and fast. Yet, it takes roughly 10 gallons of oil painting to make one gallon of spurt energy. Confining flying to only critical, long- distance passages to various parts of the world, trains can replace aeroplanes for short- to medium- distance passages — would help check airplane emissions.

Sea and Ocean preservation


In terms of storage capacity, oceans and seas are considered to be the largest reservoirs of greenhouse gases. They provide an exceptional support system for life on this planet. In order to protect our natural resources, we must limit overfishing, develop in a sustainable manner in coastal areas, and consume those products which are environmentally friendly.

Circular economy

Using the three r’s of circular economy, that is, to “Reduce, Reuse and Recycle”, is highly important to reduce our waste and avoid excessive production significantly. So Waste Management & Recycling should also be done properly in order to reduce the effect of climatic changes in the future. Adapting our production methods to our consumption patterns is the easiest way to reduce waste. Taking recycling into account in our consumption habits is also important

Future Fuels

Replacing Fossil energies may prove the great challenge of the 21st century. Numerous contenders live, ranging from ethanol deduced from crops to hydrogen electrolyzed out of the water, but all of them have some downsides, too, and none are incontinently available at the scale demanded.

But plug- in hybrids would still calculate on electricity, now generally generated by burning coal. Massive investment in low- emigration energy generation, whether solar- thermal power or nuclear fission, would be needed to radically reduce green house gas emissions. And indeed more academic energy sources hyphens humanity’s first planet wide trial. But, if all else fails, it could not be the last. So- called geoengineering, radical interventions to either block harmful sun rays or reduce green house gases, is a implicit last resort for addressing the challenge of climate change.

Lignocellulosic biomass

 How lignocellulosic biomass support sustainability

One of the most abundant resources in this world is biomass. Biomass consists of three primary materials such as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Therefore, biomass can consider as a lignocellulosic material. Lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) has dormant supremacy in defeating the present/future energy dilemma. This is due to the steady exhaustion of non-renewable fossil fuels. Lignocellulose also helps generate a wide range of bio-based chemicals and biofuels as sustainable feedstock. In addition to being polymers of sugars, cellulose and hemicellulose are using for sugar fermentation or converting sugars into products. Lignin is a polymer compound which contains phenolic compounds. Rice husk/stubble is one of the biomass with a high order of lignin. It has unique characteristics because of its silica content.

Khaitan bio energy uses high efficient techniques for lignin and silica extraction. It is done during the lignin isolation process following enzymatic saccharification. The technology has been so as to establish an end to end process for a self sustained integrated biorefinery. Most importantly it focusses a “Zero discharge facility”. 

 Khaitan bioenergy estimates to produce that tons of bioethanol yearly from lignocellulosic biomass obtained from stubble residues alone.

Simple diagrammatic view of Biomass – Fuel Conversion

Lignin and silica as by product

Among various biomass sources, the stubble primarily consists of cellulose (35–45%), hemicellulose (20–25%). Whereas the presence of lignin is 15–20% along with a high amount of silica and ash (10–15 %). Looking forward the production purposes of the paddy field are increasing. This results in 1.1–1.3 times straw as agro-residue in the last years. Eventhough available at a large scale and a low-cost source, stubble is still underutilised due to the high presence of silica, making it chemically and biochemically resistant (indigestible b). This leads to piling up in landfills and burning the field, causing substantial air and soil pollution. 

In order o highlight the value of rice straw, converting it into high-value chemicals and fuels is an encouraging approach. However, the pretreatment of stubble is the bottleneck of the process to derange the unmanageable nature for bringing out sugar ompounds or other target chemicals. The method of acid hydrolysis is implemented in the pre treatment. Through this process, lignin and silica are simultaneously undergoes extraction to enhance holocellulose content and accessibility in the final product and produce selectively target chemicals.

The intricate nature of the composition of stubble is due to the rigid cell wall and the proximity of lignin and hemicellulose. Thus, holocellulose expects to disintegrate by chemical or biological pretreatments.This fantastic product of evolutionary developments has long shown potential as a highly sustainable and renewable source of fuels and materials.

The main use of Lignin for the manufacturing of biofuel or other useful compounds by two ways. Firstly by uncoupling lignin polymer from other cell wall polymers and secondly by exploiting the properties of lignin polymer for biofuel or for the production of other commercially useful products. Whereas Silica is widely used as a proppant. It holds open the fractures created by hydraulic fracturing allowing oil and gas to flow out of the formation.

Lignocellulose – A vital source to produce high-value marketable, and sustainable products.

Recently there has been a rise in research interest in the value or revaluation of lignocellulose-based materials due to increasing scientific knowledge, global economic and environmental awareness, legislative demands, and the manufacture, use, and removal of petrochemical-based by-products. The application of green technologies to extract and transform biomass-based carbohydrates, lignin, oils and other materials into a broader spectrum of marketable and value-added products with a zero-waste approach is a remarkable review.

Recognizing sources of biofuels such as biodiesel and biochar can reduce the environmental impacts of fossil fuels. Biofuels can also counter the raising demand of fossil resources and reduce reliance on non-renewable sources. However, it is essential to implement practical, scientific and robust tools to evaluate the exact advantages of using biofuels over conventional energy sources. Life cycle assessment has been identified as a comprehensive evaluation approach. This is to measure environmental impacts over the entire manufacturing chain of biofuels.

Bio-based economies have been the subject of significant research efforts. The main focus is to transform petroleum-based economies into socially acceptable, environmentally friendly, and comprehensively sustainable ones.

There is currently an intensive research effort in bio-refineries to develop sustainable and eco-efficient products to compete in the petroleum-based product market. Currently the energy reserves is becoming more and more difficult to access. Inorder to diversify the energy mix, Khaitan Bio energy operate in today’s most demanding environment enabling the transition to a more sustainable energy

Flex-Fuel

What is a Flex-Fuel?

Flex or flexible fuel is an alternative renewable fuel with a combination of petrol and different types of concentrated ethanol or methanol. Extraction of bioethanol is from sugar or residual crops or other multiple biomass. Flex fuel vehicle is the alternative fuel adaptive vehicle. Flex Fuel Vehicles (FFV) have spread throughout the automotive industry during the past 20 years and offer customers a fuel choice other than traditional gasoline.

What to know about Flex Fuel

E10

‘E10’ fuel is about 5 to 10 per cent ethanol-petrol blend. Currently, most vehicles manufactured after 2008 can support E10 without much difficulty. In 2008, The Society of Indian automobile manufacturers (SIAM) set up fuel material compatibility countermeasures for the vehicles manufactured from 2008 onwards.

E15

Any Flex Fuel vehicles or vehicles 2001 model year and newer are approved to use E15. Motorcycles, heavy-duty vehicles, motorsport vehicles and vehicles older than 2001 are not authorised to use E15. The EPA has approved another blend, E15, in all light-duty cars since 2001. Manufacturers responsible for nearly 95% of U.S. light-duty vehicle sales endorse the use of E15 in their model year 2022 automobiles, according to a review of owner’s manuals by the trade group RFA.

E25

E25 contains 25% ethanol. This blend has been widely used in Brazil since the late 1970s. In 2022, BMW and Mini go a step further by approving the use of gasoline containing up to 25% ethanol (E25) in the latest model.

E85

E85 is a gasoline-ethanol blend containing between 51% to 85% ethanol. It depends on the season and geographic region of the distributor. E85 sold during colder months often has lower levels of ethanol to produce the vapour pressure necessary for starting the engine in cold temperatures.

E98

E98, 98% ethanol, is a popular fuel for some types of race cars. Consistency of the energy is also paramount as most ethanol available at the retail dispensers can contain 70-90% ethanol. The stoichiometric ratio for ethanol is 9.0:1. E98 can be used as a race fuel or blended with other gasoline to make the desired ethanol concentration. This product is designed to meet ASTM standard D4806 standard specification for Denatured Fuel Ethanol for blending with gasoline.

Compatible Vehicle (Flex Fuel Vehicle)

  • Flex-fuel vehicles with modified internal combustion engines using traditional petrol with ethanol blends (E85) are usually the most compatible.
  • There is another alternative A badge with Flex-Fuel on the vehicle’s rear that may indicate it is compatible with the alternative fuel.
  • Having a yellow gas cap is a good indication that the car can use flex fuel. A sure sign would be a cape-less fuel filler with a yellow ring around the nozzle, which signals E85.
  • Using any octane level of gasoline in a flex-fuel vehicle is acceptable. The sensors in an FFV detect whether the fuel is pure gasoline or 85% ethanol. It then makes necessary changes for optimal fuel injection and timing of combustion.
  • Putting E85 in a car not designed for flexible fuel can be harmful. Always refer to the owner’s manual for specifications on fuel to use in your vehicle.
  • Technically, the first FFV was Henry Ford’s Model T in 1908, as it used an adjustable carburettor and could run on gasoline, ethanol, or both. From a modern standpoint, however, one of the first Flex Fuel vehicles that could run on E85 was the mid-to-late ‘90s Ford Taurus, following Ford’s experimental M85 methanol-powered vehicles.
  • A few examples of new vehicles with an FFV option include the 2020 Ford Transit Connect Transit Wagon LWB, 2020 Chevrolet Impala, 2020 Ford F-150, 2019 Ford Escape, 2019 Chrysler 300, 2019 Mercedes-Benz CLA240 4MATIC, as well as several other Fords, Chevrolets, GMCs, Toyotas, Nissans, Rams, and Dodges.

Implementation

Brazil

Brazil has the world’s largest and most successful biofuel programs, involving ethanol fuel production from sugarcane. It is also considered the world’s first sustainable biofuel economy. In 2006 Brazilian ethanol provided 18% of the country’s road transport sector fuel consumption needs. Brazilian ethanol fuel production in 2011 was 21.1 billion litres (5.6 billion U.S. liquid gallons), down from 26.2 million litres (6.9 billion gallons) in 2010. A supply shortage took place for several months during 2010 and 2011. The prices climbed to the point that ethanol fuel was no longer attractive for owners of flex-fuel vehicles. The government then reduced the minimum ethanol blend in gasoline to reduce demand and keep ethanol fuel prices from rising further. Hence, ethanol fuel import dependency has been dependent on the united states.

US

The United States produces and consumes more ethanol fuel than any other country. Ethanol used as a fuel dates back to Henry Ford, who, in 1896, designed his first car, the “Quadricycle”, to run on pure ethanol. Most vehicles on the road today in the U.S. can run on blends of up to 10% ethanol. Motor vehicle manufacturers already produce cars that run on much higher ethanol blends. In 2007 Portland, Oregon, became the first city in the country to mandatorily sales to be at least 10% ethanol within city limits. But in recent years, many cities also projected the necessity of ethanol blends due to non-attainment of federal air quality goals.

Europe

Bioethanol consumption in Europe is the largest in Sweden, France and Spain. Germany’s bioethanol market vanished entirely after the removal of federal tax incentives in 2015. Europe produces equivalent to 90% of its consumption (2006). Germany had about 70% of its consumption, Spain 60% and Sweden 50% (2006). There are 792 E85 filling stations in Sweden, and in France, 131 E85 service stations, with 550 more under construction.

China

China is promoting ethanol-based fuel on a pilot basis in five cities in its central and northeastern regions. It is to create a new market for its surplus grain and reduce petroleum consumption. Under the program, Henan will promote ethanol-based fuel across the province by the end of this year. Officials say the move is of great importance in helping to stabilise grain prices, raise farmers’ income and reduce petrol-induced air pollution.

Thailand

Thailand already uses a large scale of 10% ethanol (E10) in the local market and selling E20 in 2008, and by year-end, only two gas stations were functional with selling E85. Some of the cassava stock held by the government is now converted into fuel ethanol. Cassava-based ethanol production is being ramped up to help manage the agricultural outputs of both cassava and sugar cane. With its abundant biomass resources, the fuel ethanol program will be a new means of job creation in rural areas while enhancing the balance sheet of fuel imports.

India

Union Minister for Road Transport and Highways, ‘Nitin Gadkari, has emphasised the adoption of alternative fuels, which will be import substitutes, cost-effective, pollution-free, indigenous, and discourage the use of Petrol or diesel. During an event held on 20 October 2021, The minister assured the media regarding the government’s influence on all vehicle manufacturers to make flex-fuel engines under the Euro VI emission norms in the next six-eight months.

Current Scenario

In the US, only two automakers, Ford and General Motors offer the FFVs model in the year 2022. ’11’ 2022 models will be available as FFVs, with the four GM offerings sold only to fleet purchasers. According to the Renewable Fuels Association, that’s down from more than 80 different models from eight manufacturers, available to consumers as recently as the model year 2015. In India, On Tuesday, Toyota began pilot-testing its Corolla Altis flex fuel hybrid car. The sedan, imported from Toyota Brazil, is powered by flex-fuel technology, which allows the engine to run on fuel blended with a higher percentage of ethanol, reducing gasoline consumption, along with a hybrid powertrain.

Future

Flex fuel might be new to India, But it has been used in other countries since the 1990s. Brazil, the USA, Canada, and Sweden are some countries that have a significant flex-fuel user base. Car manufacturers that produce cars for this market could offer flex-fuel vehicles by next year to comply with proposed government regulations. Implementing Flex Fuel sooner would reduce the country’s pollution and decrease the import margin. But current investment in electric powertrains by different companies would ensure difficulty in the sooner implementation of flex fuels.

World Energy Day

The first World Energy Day was on July 11 of 1924. Over 1700 experts from 40 countries marked that energy issues can influence growth and the future of mankind and accept that a permanent world energy organization should be established. It is celebrated world wide to make sure access to economical, reliable and contemporary energy for all by 2030. It is marks the important role in leading economic growth, human development and environmental sustainability.

In 2012 World Energy was created by the World Energy Forum and has been celebrated each year since October 22. The objectives of World Energy Day are to raise awareness about energy usage and ensure the safe and green energy for all people. It also targets on reducing carbon emission .

It aims to raise awareness of the importance of saving natural resources for climate change, environmental protection, and sustainability. All these elements contribute to increasing energy sustainability and efficiency.

The 2022 motto is “Energy transition – full speed ahead!”. This will include discussions on the far reaching transformation of policies and technologies for achieving climate neutrality and how to raise the pace of change. Thus World Energy Day aims to raise the importance of saving our natural resources for sustainability. All these contribute to increase energy efficiency as of the report from Sub-Saharan Africa.Here most of the people gains access to electric power has begun to outrun population growth recently.

The main objectives of World Energy Day

From the beginning, World Energy Day was a good chance to raise awareness about the importance of saving natural resources. Eventually, topics like sustainability, climate change, conservation and efficiency are all part of this ongoing conversation. But energy access for all has taken on an important priority since an estimated 900+ million are living without energy access today.

Ensuring the affordability of sustainable energy for everyone by identifying the need for developing national policies to consider a shared global energy perspective. The objectives also strengthen policies to execute and develop mechanisms to exchange experience between various countries through the world. This includes encouraging the development of resources to run after the common good of everyone by continuing the wise use of fossil fuels in the world economy.

Energy efficiency and its importance

Saving energy, improving efficiency, and conservation are the factors use to explain ways we can lower our overall energy consumption. There are several reasons why we would do this in order to use energy most efficiently:

  • Lower the cost of energy 
  • Reduce the threat to the environment and thus save our natural resources
  • The worst predicted influence of climate change are about to happen — and much faster than climatologist expected. Climate change is the major problem,but there’s a lot we should do about it in our day to day life. Individual actions to lower greenhouse gas emissions can help reduce climate change.

An international lead for universal energy access

Innovations in decentralize energy systems permits the problem of energy access to notify. The IEA report states the people without access to electric power fell to 1.1 billion down from 1.6 billion. Now a days India is leading , focussing to reach complete electrification 10 years than the target set under the UN Sustainable Development Goals .

West makes the conversion from fossil fuels to renewable energy, an estimated 1.1 billion people through out the world. But the most of them in sub-Saharan Africa, are without access to electricity still. To spot this day, KhaitanBioEnergy look at the needs to be done in investment of technology to make universal access to energy a reality.

How can we achieve it? 

Developed countries have not observed consistent and reliable electricity a luxury for some time now. With many observing consistent electricity, it is an intolerable fact that there remain areas with irregular access to electricity. Reliable energy is the main driver of human progress. Acquiring electricity makes communities guarded, helps small businesses survive and even flourish.Also powers necessary services such as schools and clinics.

 By providing a good environment for investments, innovations and new industries that incentivize growth and provide jobs for developing economies. The government’s immense efforts over the last decades have put it on of the main success stories ever in electrification.

Subsequently, authorities have used solar, energy storage batteries and LED lighting to supply 80% of previously unconnected villages with power.

Some countries are still without electricity.

The IEA estimates that supplying electricity for all by 2030 will need an annual investment of $52 billion. The extra investment, 95% needs to be spent to sub-Saharan Africa. South Sudan with the least level of electricity access in the world. Utility organisations in developing countries often cannot pay for to hook small, scattered rural communities up to the grid. Same way, high connection costs for informal housing and the effect of power theft on services are unaccompanied by electricity.

About 110 million of the 600 million people living without access to electicity in Africa . In Kenya, approximately 70% of off-grid homes are within just 1.2 KM of a power line.

Moreover, even in resource-rich Europe, the European Union (EU) about 50 million people lack from energy , whereas they hardly heat their homes and finds utility bills in time.

Can renewable energy sufficient for energy gap?

Of the 1.2 billion people have gained access to electricity since 2000, nearly all have done so via connection to the main grid, with 70% getting access to power generated from fossil fuels . Recently the number of people gaining access to electric power in Sub-Saharan Africa starts to outrun population growth.

However declining costs for solar power, decentralized solutions, off-grid and mini-grid systems etc results electrifying sub-Saharan Africa that helps to achieve with clean energy.

Nowadays, renewables have been the source of over one-third of new connections, while decentralized renewables are the source of 6% of new electricity access.

The World Energy Council expects solar and wind to rise from 4% globally in 2016 to 42% in 2060. Moreover, renewables have provided more than a third , IEA expects this shift to accelerate by 2030. It should be noted that providing energy access for all would not result in a net increase in global greenhouse gas emissions. Energy demand and related CO2 emissions would only increase by around 0.2%. This would be more than offset by net GHG reductions resulting from reduced use of biomass for cooking.

Achieving universal energy access

The solution to electrifying detached communities lies in the deployment of decentralized and renewable energy sources. Mini- and off-grid systems provide communities agency over their energy utilization and independence from the main grid, while renewables are becoming highly inexpensive and thus more viable for smaller, developing sites.

Increased investment into these technologies is integral to currently unelectrified homes receiving affordable and reliable power. According to the IEA report, universal electrification would require an annual investment of $52bn, representing more than twice the level mobilized under present norms. 

Of the additional investment, 95% needs to focus on sub-Saharan Africa. Detail geospatial modelling suggests that decentralized systems, led by solar photovoltaic in off-grid systems and mini-grids, are the cheapest method for 3 quarters of the extra connections needed in sub-Saharan Africa.

About a $350m electrification program in Nigeria is expected to attract $410m in private investment and create a market for mini and off-grid energy solutions. Based on this scheme, the Nigerian Rural Electrification Agency is mapping more than 200 sites for mini-grid development.

The extreme global temperatures and weather conditions caused by climate change have led nations across the world to step up clean energy efforts. With technological innovations causing prices of solutions such as wind and solar to dip and installations to soar. However, despite renewables’ growing grasp of the energy market, the industry still faces the problem of universal energy access.

To mark World Energy Day, KhaitanBioEnergy looks at global energy access and the measures underway to improve it. However, authorities need to do much more work if the target of universal electrification is to be obtain by 2030.

On this World Energy Day, let’s pledge to help build a sustainable future for the future generations . India provides a key example of a nation working to rapidly electrify. The Modi government pledged to electrify every home in the region by December 31 2018, under an INR163 bn (US$2.5bn) scheme known as ‘Saubhagya Yojana. Since then, authorities have supplied 80% of previously unconnected villages with power, using solar energy storage batteries and LED lighting.

Synthetic fuel

What is synthetic fuel

What is synthetic fuel?

A liquid fuel not from natural crude oil is a synthetic fuel, and synthetic fuels are artificial alternatives to conventional gasoline or diesel. In its simplest form, a synthetic fuel combines hydrogen and carbon atoms to form a compound known as an alkene — usually Ethene, which consists two carbon atoms and four hydrogen atoms.

Nevertheless, there is much variance in how individual companies go about obtaining to an end product that could be pump into the fuel tank of vehicles. Some synthetic fuels use mind-bending chemical processes, and others start as a literal load of old garbage.

 Modern transportation fuels demand uniform physical properties from varying feedstocks with chemical compositions mainly synthesized from petroleum or other fossil fuels

 The term gasoline implies that many components are synthesizing using cracking or reforming techniques. Thus, gasoline is rather than synthetic fuel, and reformulate gasoline contains a more significant fraction of petroleum molecules. 

Fuels from oil sands and heavy oil come under the same term as petroleum-based fuels. Liquid fuels from coal, peat, natural gas, and oil shale are synthetic fuels. Renewable biomass from photosynthesis gets converted into a variety of synthetic fuels. Coal gasification and natural gas reforming are sources of synthesis gas. That is a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide(CO), the essentials for producing synthetic fuels.

How is it made?

  Independent of origin, Ethanol, methanol, and biodiesel comes under the term synthetic fuel. Coal gasification and natural gas reforming are sources of synthesis gas, a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

To understand the manufacturing of renewable synthetic fuels, firstly, you must understand what fossil fuels are. They consist of a large number of various hydrocarbon molecules.

The key to component synthetic fuels is syngas. Syngas is a mixture of hydrogen (H) and carbon monoxide, and it is essential to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel like jet fuel, diesel, or gasoline. Turning syngas into fuel is a confirmed industrial process, using coal and natural gas as feedstocks, which is not sustainable. So that is precisely where the challenge lies: producing sustainable syngas. This production requires a large amount of energy, and to produce it sustainably, it needs to come from a renewable resource like biomass, solar, wind or hydro.

Synthetic fuels can be created via several different processes. One of these processes is coal liquefaction. Usually, this process generates large amounts of carbon dioxide, making it a wrong alternative to conventional fuels.

However, it is also possible to create synthetic fuels through a method that captures carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. This technique is receiving appreciation and investment from car makers and other industries.

The process works like this:

  1. Obtain Carbon dioxide either directly from the atmosphere or industrial plants. Various methods exist for these processes.
  2. Renewable energy sources are avail to produce hydrogen. This can use to power hydrogen cars. 
  3. Then, hydrogen and carbon dioxide combine into synthetic methanol, which can then be convert into synthetic petrol and diesel.

 

Process :

The processes used to generate synthetic fuels broadly fall into three divisions: Indirect, Direct and Biofuel processes.

Indirect conversion

This type of conversion has the broadest deployment worldwide. About 260,000 barrels per day are produced by this method.

Indirect conversion broadly attributes to a step in which biomass, coal or natural gas converts to syngas through gasification or steam methane reformation. Then the syngas undergoes many processes and then converted into a liquid transportation fuel using any conversion techniques depending on the end product.

Indirect conversion synthetic fuels processes.jpg

The primary technologies that produce synthetic fuel from syngas are Fischer–Tropsch synthesis and process is Methanol-To-Gasoline conversion( MTG). In the Fischer–Tropsch process, syngas act in the presence of a catalyst, transforming into liquid products and potential waxes.

The process of generating synfuels through indirect conversion is coal-to-liquids (CTL), gas-to-liquid (GTL) or (BTL), depending on the initial feedstock. Some projects combine coal and biomass feedstocks, creating hybrid-feedstock synthetic fuels called Coal and Biomass To Liquids (CBTL).

Indirect conversion process technologies are available to produce hydrogen, mainly for use in fuel cell vehicles, either as a slipstream co-product or as a primary output.

 

Direct conversion 

Direct conversion means coal or biomass feedstocks converts straightly into intermediate or final products, thus avoiding conversion to syngas via gasification. These conversion processes are of two different methods: Pyrolysis & carbonization and hydrogenation.

Biofuel processes

One example of a Biofuel-based synthetic fuel process is Hydrotreated Renewable Jet (HRJ) fuel. There are different types of these processes under development, testing and certification process for HRJ aviation fuels is beginning.

There are two such processes. One using solid biomass feedstocks and one using bio oil and fats. The process uses solid second-generation biomass sources like grass or woody biomass. It then uses pyrolysis to produce a bio-oil, which undergoes stabilization and deoxygenation to produce jet-range fuel. The process then undergoes deoxygenation, followed by hydrocracking and isomerization to produce jet fuel.

The primary source of synthetic fuel

Generally, there are three methods for the production of renewable syngas. Furthermore, eventually, eco-friendly synthetic fuels are known as biofuels. These are mainly from biomass, e fuels- produced with renewable electricity, and solar fuels- manufactured with solar heat. All three methods mainly go through syngas, a combination of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. The syngas then turns into liquid fuels via industrial gas-to-liquid processes. These three methods are called Biomass-to-Liquid, Power-to-Liquid, and Sun-to-Liquid, respectively.

Biomass-to-Liquid produces biofuels

Even though several processes exist to change biomass into liquid fuels, the most scalable and versatile in terms of feedstock unergoes the gasification of biomass. Specifically, biomass changes at high temperatures into syngas. The heat input needed to drive the process is usually created by burning a part of the biomass. Feedstocks can be crops such as sugar cane, corn waste(stubble) biomass, or algae. Biofuels are the only form of renewable synthetic fuels that are readily available on the market in small quantities. 

Even though several processes exist to convert biomass into liquid fuels, the most scalable and most versatile in terms of feed stock goes through the gasification of biomass. Specifically biomass converts at high temperatures into syngas. The heat input require to drive the process is usually generated by burning a part of the biomass itself. Feedstocks can be any crops such as sugar cane or corn waste(stubble) biomass or algae. Biofuels are the only type of renewable synthetic fuels that are already available on the market in small quantities.

Power-to-Liquid produces e-fuels

E-fuels are produced from renewable powers such as solar, wind, or hydro power. The Power-to-Liquid process depends on a series of energy conversion steps. Firstly renewable electricity is generated which then drives an electrolyzer that splits water in hydrogen and oxygen. Next, the hydrogen is mixed with carbon dioxide and turned into syngas via the reverse water gas shift (RWGS) reaction .It is a process that conducts at high temperatures and driven with electricity. E-fuels can be produced with any type of renewable electricity. However, electricity storage for continuous operation remains a challenge.Hence it limits the application to few regions with an extraordinarily cheap and continuous renewable electricity supply .On the other hand it requires the integration of expensive battery technology for its working.

Sun-to-Liquid produces solar fuels

Solar fuels obtaining from solar heat that drives a thermochemical reactor. In this reactor, carbon dioxide and water are convers to syngas. Just like e-fuels, solar fuels are not yet available on the market. Sunny regions offer ideal conditions for the production of solar fuels, mainly deserts and semi-arid regions with high solar radiation. The solar heat during the day can store by inexpensive thermal energy storage to enable energy cycle of the production of fuels. Storage makes solar fuel plants self-sufficient and independent from any framework.

Why synthetic fuel necessary in future energy systems

It is clear that the benefits to energy systems from the stores of fossil fuel-based energy will not be able to replace without some other form of fuel-based energy storage. All energy systems have benefited from the stored chemical energy intrinsic in fossil fuels that has allowed a decoupling of primary energy supplies from the final use demand on a grand scale. Despite the fact that synthetic fuels are expensive, if policy makers wish to encourage them to grow in market share, then they could consider providing protected markets for them to compete within. Also to provide subsidies, or by costing fossil fuels with a carbon price that helps to close the cost gap.

The creation of synthetic fuels also provides a highly dispatchable demand to help integrate greater levels of weather-dependent renewables, which will be increasingly desirable in future energy systems that rely on primary electricity from renewables to a much greater degree.

The question simply put is not whether we will continue to need fuels in future energy systems, but the type of fuels that will be suitable in a highly eco-friendly.

Flex Fuel Engines

Flex fuel engines have an injection system that can operate with gasoline, with any mixture ratio of gasoline and ethanol, or with pure ethanol. Which means they are capable of running on 100% petrol or 100% bio-ethanol or a combination of both. Regardless of the supply, customers are supple when it comes to the choice of fuel and are able to respond to possible price developments immediately. Clearly flexibility with the choice of fuel is the key argument for buying vehicles with flex fuel engines. The market share of such flex fuel engines are high while other markets still show great potential to establish those systems. The main advantages of Flex Fuel Engines for Your Vehicle is resource saving mobility with ethanol as fuel. Flex Fuel Strong Hybrid Electric Vehicles (FFSHEV) basically houses an electric motor which powers the vehicle alongside the traditional petrol engine.

Dual fuel vehicle means the engine that uses two fuels (gas and diesel) together. Bi Fuel means the engine could run on either fuel but separately. On the other hand FFV is capable of running on either petrol or ethanol or a combination of both. Hence it is a combination of Dual fuel vehicle and Bi fuel vehicle.

How do flex fuel engines work using ethanol?

A flex fuel car looks just like any other kind of car. The main differences between the two lie with the engine and fuel system. Flex-fuels vehicles can run on regular gas, various ethanol blends and other types of fuel . Production of ethanol is mainly by fermenting agricultural residues. The main ethanol blends on the market today are E85 and E95, which get their names from their compositions. E85 is 15 percent unleaded gas and up to 85 percent ethanol . While E95 typically used in diesel powered vehicles is up to 95 percent ethanol. An engine that runs on regular petrol can also run on flex fuel which means any car with the spark-ignition engine can run on this flex fuel .

Components that comprise the fueling system of flex fuel vehicles are also crafted to be ethanol compatible. Otherwise higher water content of ethanol could cause rust to form and damage the fuel system from the inside out. Despite these different components, maintenance costs for FFVs are generally the same as for other vehicles, and sometimes are even lower, since flex fuels burn fuel more cleanly .

Comparison of flex fuel Vs gasoline vehicles

Apart from few differences, a flex fuel engine and a gasoline car have almost similar components.

Flex Fuel Engine

  • Battery: The battery provides electricity to start the engine and power vehicle electronics/accessories.  
  • Electronic control module (ECM): The ECM controls the fuel mixture, ignition timing, and emissions system; monitors the operation of the vehicle; safeguards the engine from abuse; and detects and troubleshoots problems.    
  • Exhaust system: The exhaust system channels the exhaust gases from the engine out through the tailpipe. There is a 3 way catalyst to reduce engine-out emissions within the exhaust system. 
  • Fuel filler: A nozzle from a fuel dispenser attaches to the receptacle on the vehicle to fill the tank. 
  • Fuel injection system: This system introduces fuel into the engine’s combustion chambers for ignition.        
  • Fuel line: A metal tube or flexible hose (or a combination of these) transfers fuel from the tank to the engine’s fuel injection system.
  • Fuel pump: A pump that transfers fuel from the tank to the engine’s fuel injection system via the fuel line.        
  • Fuel tank (ethanol/gasoline blend): Stores fuel on board the vehicle to power the engine.            
  • Internal combustion engine (spark-ignited): Here fuel inject into either the intake manifold or the combustion chamber, where it is combined with air, and the air/fuel mixture is ignited by the spark from a spark plug.            
  • Transmission: Transfer mechanical power from the engine and/or electric traction motor to drive the wheels.          

  Gasoline Car

  • Battery: The battery provides electricity to start the engine and power vehicle electronics/accessories.
  • Electronic control module (ECM): The ECM controls the fuel mixture, ignition timing, and emissions system.Similarly it monitors the operation of the vehicle, safeguards the engine from abuse, detects and troubleshoots problems.            
  • Exhaust system: The exhaust system channels the exhaust gases from the engine out through the tailpipe. A three-way catalyst is there to reduce engine-out emissions within the exhaust system.            
  • Fuel filler: A nozzle from a fuel dispenser attaches to the receptacle on the vehicle to fill the tank.    
  • Fuel injection system: This system introduces fuel into the engine’s combustion chambers for ignition.            
  • Fuel line: A metal tube or flexible hose (or a combination
  • ) transfers fuel from the tank to the engine’s fuel injection system.            
  • Fuel pump: A pump that transfers fuel from the tank to the engine’s fuel injection system via the fuel line.            
  • Fuel tank (gasoline): This tank stores gasoline on board the vehicle until engine require it.            
  • Internal combustion engine (spark-ignited): In this configuration, fuel inject into either the intake manifold or the combustion chamber. Then it is combined with air, and the air/fuel mixture is ignited by the spark from a spark plug.            
  • Transmission: The transmission transfers mechanical power from the engine and/or electric traction motor to drive the wheels.            

The Mechanism Behind Flex-Fuel Vehicles    

The engine of a FFV is designed to run on more than one type of fuel .Usually gasoline or a combination of fuel is stored in the same tank . When you start the engine a sensor mounted in the fuel line can detect the percentage of fuel blend . The ethanol/methanol/gasoline ratio, or the fuel’s alcohol concentration and sends a signal to an electronic control module. The electronic control module then adjusts the engine’s fuel delivery control to compensate for the different fuel mixtures.The engine then delivers the precise amount of fuel into the engine via injectors. Rest, it works similar to a conventional engine.

In order to ascertain the exact proportion of gasoline and ethanol in the fuel tank the engine management parameters should set accordingly.The virtual sensor to helps in adjusting the fueling rate. Knowledge of the ratio between the two fuels is necessary because of the different parameters of the various fuels . Nowadays, physical alcohol sensors have become more common, especially in markets with challenging emissions and on-board diagnostics requirements.

During a re filling time the sensors check the fuel tank level sensor. This helps get an approximate value for the volume of fuel . Thereby use an algorithm to allow the EMS to calculate two approximate new values of the stochiometric Air Fuel Ratio( AFR ). And then it check that the fuel added was either gasoline or a combination. On restarting it monitors the O2 sensors and looks for a perturbation in their signal. Once when the AFR is swinging in the rich or lean direction it adjusts the operating parameters gradually until it locks on to the new value and the vehicle has been ‘conditioned’. Figure shows a representation of a sensor detection system. The initial swings to the new AFR is quite rapid, but an extended period of conditioning is necessary .

Since flex fuel engines are increasingly popular they are not a miracle solution. The good news is they enable us to consume fewer fossil fuel as plant-based bio ethanol is a renewable energy source. It also burns much more cleanly, which is great for the entire environment. But flex fuels get fewer miles than gasoline-powered vehicles. Also they can be pricier and there aren’t many gas stations selling E85. Higher blending of ethanol results in higher manufacturing costs which translates to pricier vehicles. Some engine parts especially those that come in contact should be replaced with a compatible product to avoid corrosion. Despite all these ,automotive companies say that they are ready to move with government regulations on ethanol blending of E20 by 2025. Government officials have said that many popular car making companies have agreed to make flex fuel engines in coming future.

 

Stubble Burning

Paddy straw is a central field-based residue that is produced in large amounts in Asia. In reality, it could theoretically produce 187 gallons of bioethanol from the total area if the technology were available. However, an increasing proportion of this paddy straw encounters field burning, and this improper management results in high fuel prices and air pollution. For the past 25 years, conservation farming has continued to evolve. There is now less burning and, therefore, less soil cultivation and increased crop stubble retention. This trend is growing because of the need to improve water use and protect soils from erosion. As climate change is a threat to development, there is a growing interest in alternative uses of agricultural remnants.

What is stubble burning?

Crop stubble is the straw and crown of plants left on the field after harvest. Stubble consists straw and chaff discharged from the harvester. It is also known as ‘residue’ or ‘trash’. Managing this agricultural waste is one of the complex tasks that farmers must be concerned with. Usually, farmers burn stubble to manage weeds and diseases and reduce biomass to make sowing better. This is no longer a good option, as many other alternatives manage the residuals.

There are primarily two types of residues from rice cultivation that have potential in terms of energy—straw and husk. Although the technology of using rice husk is thoroughgoing in many Asian countries, paddy straw, as of now, is rarely using as a source of renewable energy. One of the principal reasons for the major use of husk is its easy procurement, i.e., it is possible at the rice mills. Collecting paddy straw is tedious, and its availability is tedious during harvest time. The collection logistics improve through baling, but the fundamental equipment is expensive and buying it is uneconomical for farmers. So technologies should develop for the efficient use of a straw to commit for the high costs involved in straw collection.

Retaining stubble than burning or cultivating, protects the soil from erosion. It also preserves soil moisture and organic matter to retain crop production. This is mainly beneficial in dry areas or dry seasons. Stubble impact many things, including the passage of equipment, penetration, soil temperature, herbicide interactions, frost severity, pests, weeds and other problems. Burning is often used as a last way to manage heavy agricultural residuals. Stubble burning contributes to global warming to a great extent. About 39 million tonnes of paddy straw are burning yearly. In The Indian state of Punjab, rice farms burn about 7 to 8 million tons of leftover plant debris. Similarly, the total national annual emission for CO2 from crop residue burning is more than 64 times the total CO2 pollution emission in Delhi.

Why do farmers choose stubble burning?

Burning paddy straw residue has risen remarkably over the past twenty years. Despite the benefits of keeping the stubble, most of the farmers opt for heavy stubble burning for the following reasons:

  • Ease of sowing and better establishment of tiny seeds like canola.
  • To make the area most inappropriate for many types of pests.
  • To manage certain weeds, mainly herbicide-resistant weed populations.
  • Burning is the cheapest and easy way to remove stubble and control weeds.
  • Reduced reliance on agricultural chemicals.
  • Provides better weed control caused due to a more even spreading of herbicides and effective incorporation of pre-emergent herbicides.
  • Less nitrogen tie-up -Nitrogen tie-up in cropping soils is only a temporary constraint as the immobilised N will be released through microbial turnover, mostly later in the crop season in spring.
  • To some extent, it results in less frost damage to crops.
  • By completely removing the stubble, only less inoculum is required for certain crop diseases.

Harmful effects of burning

  • Atmospheric pollution and climatic changes:

Open stubble burning emits many toxic pollutants into the atmosphere, which contain harmful gases like methane, carbon monoxide etc. These gases contribute a lot to the formation of smog. Stubble burning emits delicate particulate matter at high levels, which concerns people’s health. These particles can get trapped inside the lungs, ultimately leading to lung cancer. Pollution from stubble burning significantly reduced lung function and was particularly harmful to people in the surrounding area.

  • Effects on soil fertility and agricultural production:

Stubble burning affects soil fertility through the destruction of nutrients present in the soil.t also raises the soil temperature to about 42 °C, thus displacing or killing the essential microorganisms in the soil at a depth of about 2.5 cm. Thus successive fire destroys the soil’s fertility, resulting in the reduction of crop yields over time, and therefore growers have to rely on costly fertilisers.

  • Effects on human health and mortality rates:

Many studies have established the vital role of air pollution in the rising health problems, especially among children, pregnant women, elderly persons, and people with pre-existing health issues. This hazardous chemical produced as a result of burning causes problems for skin and eyes irritation, severe neurological, cardiovascular, and respiratory diseases etc. Moreover, the first and primary target of toxic substances inhaled through the air causes respiratory system disorders, cancer, or even death in extreme cases. Continuous exposure to particulate emissions may lead to an elevated cardiovascular mortality rate.

Alternatives to burning heavy stubble

There are many valuable ways to manage stubble rather than burning it and causing pollution. Some of them are :

  • Growers should focus on cutting heavy stubble and using it after harvest. This helps to shorten stubble, retain soil moisture and accelerate decomposition.
  • Inter-row sowing allows stubble to be retained when crop rows are more than 22 centimetres wide.
  • Growers may need to review stubble management decisions each year.
  • Strategic removal of stubble-it is possible to lower stubble loads if they are likely to make problems with sowing, establishment or weed management. Legume and oilseed crops produce reduce stubble loads. Their inclusion in the rotation may help to manage the risk of stubble burning.
  • Grazing-Small mobs of sheep in large paddocks often only reduce stubble loads in parts of the paddock.
  • Bailing- It is possible to remove stubbles profitably after harvest by baling straw. Baled straw has been used in animal bedding, mushroom compost and livestock feed for some years. It has other potential uses, such as for bioenergy.

Since the pollution from stubble burning has become a concern, Khaitan bioenergy has found a way to extract ethanol from it, which is a valuable fuel. Thus proper stubble management is economically beneficial to farmers and can protect the environment from severe pollution.

Biofuel production and energy generation

Recently much progress has done in the usage of stubble for biofuel production. This applies to managing agricultural stubble, which promotes cleaner air and a greener environment by preventing the release of toxic emissions by burning and indirectly reducing the use of fossil fuel-based energy. India ultimately depends on imports for automobile fuel, spending massive amounts of money for obtaining and transporting into the country. A shift from fossil fuel energy to biofuel produced from agricultural stubble is a feasible alternative. Biofuels have recently been gaining global interest due to their lower carbon footprint than fossil fuels.

Most farmers in North India are unaware of these prolific alternatives and, therefore, consider burning the best option. This necessitates extensive awareness programs to enlighten the growers about the availability of economically feasible options and the combined effects of stubble burning.

In short, despite the federal and state government’s strict policies and legislation to ban the burning practices, the activity continues in many parts of northern India, especially in Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh. Nationalistic compliance with these strategies requires effective follow-up with timely and continuous tracking everywhere. The government should compel the pulp and paper production, bioenergy and power industries to use the crop stubble as a proportion of their raw materials. This will motivate the farmers as selling the stubble will generate additional income. So an immense awareness program is necessary to notify the farmers of the environmental and economic benefits of using alternative approaches for managing the crop stubble.

Bioethanol vs Biodiesel

When fossil fuels are used, they produce gaseous emissions that contribute to global warming. As a result, alternative green energies derived from food residues, agricultural leftovers, or industrial food residues should be considered for sustainable development. Because of the continual increase in waste, converting waste to alternative energies or biofuels is a beneficial element. Traditional waste disposal methods, such as landfilling or incineration, produce greenhouse gases. Lignocellulose sources containing carbohydrate polymers and lignin are used to produce biofuels. These components are used as feedstock in manufacturing chemical materials, biofuel, biomethane, and biohydrogen, which are alternatives to fossil fuels. Various pretreatment methods and modern technologies are available to improve the biodegradation of various bio-waste or lignocellulose biomass which helps to convert bio-waste to biofuel (bioethanol, biodiesel, and biogas). Many academics worldwide have been developing alternative energy (biofuel) production technologies to replace fossil fuels by lowering the economic cost of bio-waste pretreatment.

Bioethanol is a type of alcohol derived from grain crops. The alcohol is primarily produced through the fermentation of existing carbohydrates in starch or sugar crops. Furthermore, cellulosic biomass is being researched as a source of ethanol production. Transesterification is used to create biodiesel from vegetable oil and animal fat. Bioethanol is similar to gasoline (Petrol), but biodiesel is identical to fossil diesel. Pure biodiesel and bioethanol can be used as fuel in vehicles with adapted engines. Although biodiesel is typically used as a fossil fuel additive, bioethanol is commonly used as a gasoline additive.

Classification

The first generation, second generation, and third generation of biofuels are divided based on the feedstock used to make ethanol or biodiesel. Additionally, the term “Advanced Biofuels” is frequently used to refer to innovative biofuel production techniques that utilise waste materials as feedstock, including garbage, used cooking oil, and animal fats.

First-generation

First-generation biomass, a food source, is utilised to make ethanol and biodiesel. Food crops that are biochemically classified as carbohydrates are used to ferment sugar or starch to produce ethanol. In contrast to corn, the primary source of starch, sugar comes mostly from sugarcane. Wheat, barley, and sugar beets can also make first-generation ethanol in addition to cane and maise. First-generation biodiesel is made from oils such as soybean, rapeseed (canola), sunflower, and palm.

Second-generation

Non-edible sources of biomass are used to create second-generation ethanol and biodiesel. Specific biofuel crops, agricultural residues, and wood chips are all sources of second-generation ethanol. These resources are biochemically classified as lignocellulosic materials. Most of the non-edible oils used to make second-generation biodiesel originate from jatropha. Other small sources include Jojoba, Karanja, moringa, castor, soapnut, and cottonseed oils.

Third-generation

Algae, a single-celled organism, is frequently used to make third-generation ethanol and biodiesel. Typically, algae are divided into groups according to the environments in which they live, such as freshwater, marine, or wastewater habitats. A particular alga is picked depending on its capabilities to produce ethanol or biodiesel.

Production

The production of ethanol and biodiesel involves various biological and chemical procedures. Fermentation and transesterification are the primary processes for making ethanol and biodiesel. Thus, ethanol is produced by fermenting any biomass rich in carbohydrates (sugar, starch, or cellulose) using a method equivalent to beer brewing.
Enzymatic hydrolysis of starch to fermentable sugar occurs before fermentation in the first-generation ethanol manufacturing process. Cellulose is dissociated from the lignocellulosic structure during the production of second and third-generation ethanol utilising a variety of pretreatments.

In theory, making biodiesel is less complicated than making ethanol. The oil is initially extracted from all three types of biodiesel feedstocks. The oil is then transesterified to create biodiesel. Transesterification is a chemical reaction in which an ester reacts with an alcohol to generate another ester and another alcohol. Triglyceride oils (esters) are then blended with methanol (alcohol) to produce biodiesel (fatty acid alkyl esters) and glycerin (alcohol).

Policies

Bioethanol

  • Ethanol Blended Petrol (EBP) First Generation Program: From 1st January 2003, the Government of India decided to supply ethanol mixed fuel in nine states. Four union territories for the sale of 5% ethanol blended Petrol. The EBP Program aims to achieve several goals, including reducing import dependency, conserving foreign exchange, lowering carbon emissions, and boosting the agriculture sector.
  • The Department of Food and Public Distribution (DFPD) sent a statement to the Cabinet on 25th September 2007, which was reviewed by the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) during its meeting on 9th October 2007. In this meeting, the CCEA opted for 5% mandatory ethanol-to-petrol blending and 10% optional blending by October 2007, and 10% mandatory blending by October 2008.
  • Low availability and state-specific issues had slowed EBP Program success. The Ministry of New and Renewable Energy’s (MNRE) previous National Policy on Biofuels – 2009 permitted ethanol production from non-food feedstock such as molasses, celluloses, and lignocelluloses. On 2nd January 2013, a Gazette Notification was released directing OMCs to sell blended ethanol gasoline with an ethanol content of up to 10% as per BIS Specification to reach 5% ethanol blending across the country.
  • As of 31st March 2019, the EBP Program was being implemented in 21 states and four union territories following the partition of Andhra Pradesh and the formation of the new state of Telangana. Also, Public Sector OMCs were buying ethanol from suppliers and selling up to 10% ethanol mixed gasoline.
  • The Government of India launched the “Pradhan Mantri DIVAN (Jaiv lndhan – Vatavaran Anukool fasal awashesh Nivaran) Yojana” on 28th February 2019 as a tool to create 2G Ethanol capacity in the country to encourage the 2G Ethanol sector and support this emerging industry by creating a suitable ecosystem for setting up commercial projects and increasing R&D. On 8th March 2019, the scheme was published in the Extraordinary Gazette of India.

Biodiesel

  • The MoPNG established a Biodiesel Purchase Policy in October 2005 to promote biodiesel production in the country, which went into effect on 1st January 2006. OMCs must purchase Biodiesel (B 100) that meets the BIS fuel quality criterion for 5% blending with HSD from authorised procurement centres across the country under this regulation.
  • The Cabinet approved on 16th January 2015 to allow the direct sale of Biodiesel (B 100) to all consumers by private Biodiesel makers and their authorised dealers. Also, the Joint Ventures of Oil Marketing Companies (OMCs) approved by MoPNG.
  • The Motor Spirit and High-Speed Diesel (Regulation of Supply, Distribution and Prevention of Malpractices) Order, 2005 was amended on 10th August 2015, allowing the direct sale of Biodiesel (B100) to Bulk Consumers such as Railways, State Road Transport Corporations, etc. On 10th August 2015, a few retail outlets (petroleum pumps) across the nation began selling mixed biodiesel, which oil marketing companies also introduced.
  • Later, on 29th June 2017, MoP86NG issued Gazette notification No. GSR 728 (E) amending the Motor Spirit and High-Speed Diesel (Regulation of Supply, Distribution, and Prevention of Malpractices) Order, 2005, stating that the Central Government may permit the direct sale of biodiesel (B100) for blending with high-speed diesel to all consumers, subject to the conditions specified in the notification.
  • In March 2016, the ISO 15607 Biodiesel (B100) — Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (Fame) —Specification was modified with the following Scope: “This standard specifies the sample and testing requirements and techniques for biodiesel (B100) — fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) for use in compression ignition engines intended for use as a stand-alone fuel and as a blend stock for diesel fuel. The B 100 stand-alone can also be utilised for heating and industrial engines.
  • In December 2017, BIS updated ISO 1460 (Automotive Diesel Fuel Specification) as “ISO 15607 biodiesel (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester, FAME) can be blended with automobile diesel fuel for up to 7% (v/v)”.

Overview

The average calorie consumption is rising along with the global population growth, increasing the demand for rare arable land while raising the energy needs of developing countries. Most likely, biofuel or other alternative renewable sources will be required to supply the extra gasoline. However, rising feedstock prices have restricted biodiesel and bioethanol production. Feedstock accounts for a sizable amount of the cost of producing bioethanol and biodiesel. Large-scale farming for bioethanol and biodiesel feedstock requires much arable land. In this sense, unlike bioethanol, there is no requirement for all biodiesel feedstock to be deforested to free up land for feedstock supplies.

Government support, global trade, and technological advances can continuously lower the economic cost of eventual biofuel production, making it more competitive with fossil fuels. Rising oil prices have provided financial support for biodiesel and bioethanol in recent years. The majority of bioethanol and biodiesel feedstock production is for food feedstock, which has the potential to deplete food supplies. As a result, the global debate between food and fuel demands may heat up. Biodiesel was chosen over bioethanol due to non-food feedstock outputs such as jatropha and algae. Large amounts are necessary for large-scale bioethanol and biodiesel feedstock cultivation.

Raw Materials of Bioethanol

Bioethanol is one of the most intriguing biofuels due to its favourable impact on global warming. There are various advantages in terms of sustainability when comparing advanced bioethanol production to standard bioethanol production. For example, the potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions using non-food crops or residual biomass as raw materials.

The transportation sector’s usage of fossil-derived fuels is a major environmental issue, accounting for 24% of global direct CO2 emissions. Cars, trucks, and buses account for roughly 75% of all CO2 emissions in transportation. Due to the severity of this impact, which has been worse over the past few decades, biomass is essential for producing alternative biofuels, which must be made from sustainable and renewable sources.

Through extensive research and government and industry cooperation, biomass-based liquid fuels, namely bioethanol and biodiesel, have been transformed into a competitive alternative to conventional fuels (gasoline and diesel) in the modern world. These liquid biofuels are regarded as critical components for enhancing energy security. These liquid biofuels are seen as essential components for improving energy security, mitigating climate change, and promoting rural development on a worldwide scale.

Energy Crops

Crops are energy crops if a portion or all of their yield is used as a raw material to generate useful energy. These crops generally produce a large biomass per unit of land and time. The essential features for selecting energy crops are rapid growth. They have the quality of a short period from planting to harvest and the ability to grow in harsh weather and poor soil conditions. In contrast, traditional crops will have low and unreliable yields.

Energy crops are generally divided into two types: herbaceous and woody energy crops. Herbaceous energy crops mainly belong to perennial grasses, including switchgrass, miscanthus, and giant reed, as well as others. On the other hand, with relatively fast growth, short rotation woody crops included poplar and eucalyptus. Both herbaceous and woody energy crops may reduce soil erosion and increase soil carbon and soil fertility in poor soils.

Forest Biomass

Forest biomass has been used as a feedstock for bioethanol synthesis, primarily woody components such as branches, leaves, and lops. Softwood (from gymnosperms) and hardwood are the two types of wood (from angiosperms). Growth rates and densities are significant variances between softwoods and hardwoods. Hardwoods often develop slowly and are so denser than softwoods. This organisation is vital to the lowering of CO2 levels in the atmosphere and the preservation of marginal land. When compared to other raw materials, one of the key advantages of employing forest biomass as feedstock is its flexibility in harvesting time, as these commodities do not depend on seasonality. Eucalyptus nitens bark is a forestry material that is regularly collected during harvesting.

Agricultural Waste

The agricultural residue are defined by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations (UN) as “a crop lost during the year at all stages between the farm and the home level during processing, storage, and transport.” This includes stubble, straw, husks, seeds, and bagasse and covers field and processing residues. The amount of agricultural leftovers available for bioenergy generation in the United States alone is predicted to be 240 million dry t/year by 2030. Rice, wheat, corn, and sugarcane account for many agricultural wastes, with rice straw being the most abundant residue worldwide. It calculated the bioethanol potential of these feedstocks, indicating a possible yield of 205 billion L/year from rice.

Industrial Wastes

Industrial wastes comprise all byproduct streams from existing industrial bio-based sectors such as food, pulp and paper, textiles, and biodiesel and bioethanol-related operations. The use of this form of biomass helps to lessen the environmental impact of various industrial processes by lowering net CO2 emissions, decreasing our reliance on petroleum-based resources, and boosting the economic efficiency of the operations by adding value to what is typically dumped as waste. Brewers’ discarded grains account for approximately 85% of the entire amount of by-products created by the brewing sector among food-derived wastes.

Municipal Solid Wastes

Municipal Solid Waste is waste generated from municipal, community, commercial, institutional, and recreational activities. Garbage, rubbish, ashes, street cleanings, dead animals, medical waste, and all other nonindustrial solid waste are all included. Households, offices, hotels, stores, schools, and other institutions generate MSW.
Common waste includes food waste, paper, plastic, rags, metal, and glass; demolition and construction debris; and modest amounts of hazardous garbage such as light bulbs, batteries, automobile parts, and discarded medications and chemicals. MSW is a low-cost, abundant, and mainly renewable feedstock.
The average amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) that one person generates per day in the world averages 0.74 kilogrammes but varies greatly, ranging from 0.11 to 4.54 kilos. This figure is always rising because to the exponential growth of the world population, which is directly related to the excessive consumption of energy and natural resources. The organic fraction of MSW (OFMSW) is the most significant fraction of MSW, accounting for 40-50% of total dry matter content. OFMSW is composed primarily of carbs (30-40%), lipids (10-15%), and proteins (5-15%). (dry weight).

Furthermore, OFMSWs typically contain varying percentages of inert materials such as plastic, glass, and textiles, the concentrations of which vary substantially depending on the collection mechanism used. The presence of a large volume of inert materials might cause various technical issues and reduce the effectiveness of the valorisation process. Because OFMW is a complex and varied substrate, its properties and production rates are connected to the sorting system, seasonality, population, dietary habits, and socioeconomic factors.
There are two different biowaste sorting systems (source sorted (SSOFMW) and nonsorted (NSOFMW)) that can be used as feedstock for the sequential manufacturing of bioethanol and biogas. Because of its complexity and heterogeneity, OFMW is envisioned as a rigid substrate. The most significant ethanol concentrations obtained after exposing these two substrates to nonisothermal SSF procedures were 51 and 26 g/L for SSOFMW and NSOFMW, emphasising the need for biowaste separation.

Generations of Biofuel

A biofuel is a renewable energy source derived from organic materials or byproducts of their processing and conversion. These organic materials, commonly referred to as biomass, can be directly converted into liquid fuels known as “biofuels,” which can be used as a transportation fuel. Transportation fuels are classified as either fossil fuels (primarily crude oil and natural gas) or biofuels (made of renewable resources). The transportation industry is based on liquid fuels. Liquid fuels have the advantage of being simple to store. Gaseous fuels are used less frequently in transportation, and solid fuels have even fewer applications. Currently, the most common biofuels are ethanol and biodiesel.

What to know about Biofuels

Types of Biofuels from Biomass

Biofuels are derived from biomass, and it is generally believed that their combustion is CO2 neutral. The amount of CO2 that was drawn from the atmosphere during photosynthesis and plant growth is roughly equal to what is released after burning. The carbon cycle is completed as a result. Most exhaust streams from combustion engines contain non-toxic substances such as nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and water.
The potential of available feedstock sources is critical for biofuels, and the overall biofuel potential is heavily influenced by climate. Climate, Available land for cultivation, and the productivity of dedicated energy crops all significantly impact total biofuel potential. Concerns about global climate change, primarily caused by fossil fuel use, are one of the significant drivers of biofuel development worldwide.

Scientific evidence is that accelerating global warming contributes to greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). Carbon dioxide is a crucial contributor to greenhouse gas emissions (CO2). However, Greenhouse gases include nitrous oxide (N2O), methane (CH4), and several other compounds, which are even more severe than CO2 in terms of global warming. Due to their potential for causing global warming, it has become common practice to weigh their emissions and aggregate them to CO2 equivalents.

On the other hand, greenhouse gases that are directly toxic to human health are also emitted. Particulate matter (PM), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) (including hydrocarbons HC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), and a variety of unregulated toxic air pollutants are among the primary transport emissions from the combustion of both fossil and renewable fuels. The type of feedstock is the overall critical point of how biomass production influences climate. It determines the amount of carbon concealed in the soil and the energy yield per unit of land. It is also necessary to consider what crops these crops are replacing. GHG emissions are expected to rise if they replace natural grasslands or forests. But if energy crops are cultivated on barren or dry terrain, traditional crops cannot thrive. In that situation, they can reduce considerably lower related emissions.

Biofuel Production by Region (1990-2021)

Classification

First, second, and third-generation biofuels are classified according to the raw materials used to make ethanol or biodiesel. All biofuels have different generations based on their feedstocks. In general, “advanced biofuels” refers to cutting-edge methods of producing biofuels that utilise waste products as feedstock, spent cooking oil, and animal fats.

First-generation Biofuels

Direct fuel extraction from biomass, which is often a food source, is known as 1G biofuel. Biologically categorised as food crop supplies, sugar or starch is fermented to create ethanol fuel. The primary source of sugar is sugarcane, whereas the main source of starch is corn. In addition to cane and corn, first-generation ethanol can also be derived from wheat, barley, and sugar beet. First-generation biodiesel is made from edible oil crops like soybean, rapeseed (canola), sunflower, and palm.
These biofuels also support rural communities and agricultural sectors by increasing crop demand. They also have downsides that raise the cost of food and animal feed on a global level. Some areas are experiencing a water shortage, which may also result from the high water use required for the extraction procedures. Another problem is the farming system’s need for hectares of land to produce sufficient crops. The dependence on fossil fuels is further demonstrated by using fossil fuels for power in existing production methods. Biodiesel usually contains recycled restaurant cooking oil; thus, the supply of oil is limited by the use of restaurants.

Second-generation Biofuels

Extracting ethanol and biodiesel from non-edible biomass sources yields 2G biofuel. Grass, agricultural waste, and wood chips are all included in 2G ethanol, which is made of lignocellulosic resources. Most non-edible oils used to make 2G biodiesel come from jatropha (Bhuiya). Jojoba, Karanja, moringa, castor, soapnut, and cottonseed oils.
Wood, organic waste, food waste, and particular biomass crops are other biomass sources for the second generation of biofuels. Fast-growing trees like poplar trees require pretreatment, a sequence of chemical reactions that dissolve lignin, the “glue” that keeps plants together, to be used as fuel. Thermochemical or biochemical reactions release the sugars enclosed in the plant fibres during this pretreatment process.
The second generation of biofuels solves numerous problems from the first generation. Since they derive from different types of biomass, they do not compete with food crops for fuel. Second-generation biofuels yield significantly more energy than first-generation biofuels. They enable the use of barren land that might not be able to support the growth of food crops. Given that the technology is still in its infancy, future scientific advancements may result in cost savings and higher production efficiency. Nevertheless, given that part of the biomass for second-generation biofuels grows in climates where food crops also thrive, there is still competition for land with some of the biomass. As a result, choosing which crop to cultivate is upon farmers and decision-makers.
Biomass is also utilised from cellulosic sources like maise stover (leaves, stalk, and stem of corn) that grow alongside food crops. However, this would deplete the soil’s nutrients, requiring fertiliser to refill them. Furthermore, the biomass must be pretreated to release the trapped sugars.

Third-generation Biofuels

Algae is a single-cell organism that produces the 3G biofuel blend of ethanol and biodiesel. Algae are typically divided according to their habitats, such as non-arable land, freshwater, wastewater, salt, brackish water, or genetically altered algae. Third-generation (algal) biofuels may also avoid the issues of food competition, land use, and water scarcity as they grow at a rapid pace. However, producing biofuels from microalgae is energy-intensive and currently unprofitable.

Third-generation biofuels have a higher energy density per harvest area than first and second-generation biofuels. They are marketed as low-cost, high-energy, and completely renewable energy sources. Algae have a favourable benefit that they can grow in areas where first and second-generation crops cannot, reducing stress on water and arable land. As said before, It can be grown in sewage, wastewater, and saltwater environments like oceans or salt lakes as there is no dependency on water. However, more research is needed to advance the extraction process and make it financially competitive with petrodiesel and other petroleum-based fuels.