Gypsum -Global Market

Gypsum Market Outlook

The global gypsum market is projected to reach US$ 4.3 Bn in 2022. The global demand for gypsum expect to increase by 6.2% CAGR by 2032, reaching US$ 7.8 Bn. Global gypsum market is supposed to be driven by the rising construction of various global projects. The annual growth rate from 2018 to 2023 is anticipated at 4.0%, increasing to 8.2%for 2023-2028. According to a report, Gypsum production is increasing in recent years, and it is suppose to contribute about 2% to 3% to the global mineral output

The key barometer used to predict the economic state of the gypsum industry is the construction industry. If the construction industry is an expansive market, the demand for gypsum products also increases. Increasing demand for construction materials such as drywall, plasterboard, cement, and others suppose to raise demand for Gypsum. Sales in its market show 11.5% of the global construction chemicals market.

Key factors affecting the Global Gypsum Market Growth

In the upcoming years, the key factors specified below expects to affect the industry growth and use of gypsum in different end-use applications:

  • Diversification
  • Durability
  • Regulatory trends
  • Recycling and sustainability
  • Regional trends
  • Prefabrication.

Diversification

 New demands in construction will lead to the developing of gypsum products and see companies diversify their product portfolios. This will create a price premium for higher-performance products that offer superior durability and environmental performance. At the top of the market, there will be some scope for plasterboards with smart functionality, such as monitoring moisture content.

Durability

 End users will demand more durable gypsum products to resist impact and water damage in response to more demanding building regulations. Therefore this will require refinements in gypsum production to optimise these products.

Regulatory trends

The International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) and International Green Construction Code (IgCC) will directly impact the plasterboard’s future potential. Of course similar codes are there in other countries too. A change in the building code often is a catalyst for innovation and product development. Laws in many jurisdictions will require closer monitoring of materials used in construction. This will require closer monitoring of supply chains and exact disclosure of product composition.

The energy codes have fostered product development as there is now a requirement for the exterior walls to incorporate an air barrier. Environmental regulations are also having a big effect on the market. Concern over greenhouse gas emissions and global climate change is forcing the market to consider greener options.

Recycling and sustainability

There is increasing pressure to recycle building products after their useful life. Part of the pressure comes from end-use influencers, architects, and part of it is regulation changes on how much material can be landfilled. As a result, a new industry is rising around the recycling of gypsum, specifically plasterboard products. Some plasterboard manufacturers are promoting program to recycle plasterboard products that went to construction sites.

Government regulations and green building initiatives will develop a catalyst for distributors to explore value adding services that divert used gypsum from land filling. Clearly the main focus will be for greater emphasis on gypsum recycling and its conversion into a new form of construction materials. In the US, standards are being developed to help guide the practice of recycling. However these guidelines include defining what materials undergo recycling, how to segregate the waste at construction sites and the proper marking for these materials.

Regional trends

 Many transition economies will see more demand for gypsum as urbanization is booming and adopt plasterboards as an alternative to wet construction techniques employing cement and plaster. The adoption of plasterboard in developing countries is truly gaining traction. Countries that traditionally used wet trades (plaster, cement) and technology are moving more and more into plasterboard construction. When a new product is introduced into a region, it is typically manufactured elsewhere and imported to the new market. As the supply chain to support local production simply does not exist at an early stage. As the product becomes established, so does demand, creating the impetus for local production.

Italy is a good example of this in that for many years, and it did not have any local plasterboard manufacturing facilities.

Panelisation for prefabrication

The desire to reduce construction time while increasing quality has led to a renewed emphasis on panelisation. As builders continue to move towards greater pre fabrication and panelisation, gypsum suppliers require to develop plasterboards and other products that can be adapted to these construction methods. Small companies are emerging that specialize in panelizing specific components on commercial projects. Forward-thinking contractors are setting up divisions simply focused on panelisation. While penalization is nothing new, what is driving it is incorporating building information modelling (BIM) into the process.

Country-wise Insights

 Driving factor of Gypsum Market-U.S

High Consumption of Gypsum for the Production of Drywall in the U.S. Will Fuel Growth

In 2021, the demand for Gypsum in the U.S. market grew by 4.9% each year and suppose to be about 50 Million Tons in 2022. The U.S. is the second largest producer of Gypsum, following China. According to world mining data, the total production of crude Gypsum across the country was recorded at about 22 Mn Tons in 2020.

High demand for drywall and plasterboards from the building & construction departments in the U.S. makes it a basic trader of Gypsum and its products. In addition the rising demand of PoP in the interior dezigning sector boost sales over the judgement duration.

Driving factor of Gypsum Market-China

Increasing Usage of Plasterboard in the Residential Sector in China Will Spur Demand”

China is the key producer and consumer of Gypsum. About 78% of the overall gypsum utilization will be in East Asia in 2022. The high demand in the country makes China a lucrative market for gypsum producers.

According to World Mining Data, China expect to be the predominant producer of Gypsum, followed by America, Iran, and Turkey. Moreover, in China, the total production of natural Gypsum is expected to be recorded at 25 Mn tons in 2020.

Consistent growth in the country’s construction industry is fuelling the demand for construction materials. Since gypsum is an essential constituent in producing various vital construction materials like cement, gypsum board, plasterboard, Plaster of Paris, Gypsum plaster and numerous others, and is getting traction.

Indian Gypsum Market in India

The high demand for gypsum plaster in India will contribute to the industries’ growth.

The increasing expansion in India’s building & construction sector expects to fuel Gypsum sales at a 7% CAGR over the assessment period.

It is increasing the construction of various projects across urban cities in India, bolstering Gypsum’s demand. Moreover, consistent growth in the production of cement also expects to boost growth in the gypsum market.

Category-wise Insights

Natural Gypsum

It is the Most Preferred Product Type in the Market  

Natural Gypsum to Remain High in Adoption

Considering the product type, natural gypsum suppose to dominate the Gypsum market. As per FMI, sales of natural gypsum seems to file each year at a growth of about 5.8% .

The natural segment suppose to gain high BPS points over the forecast duration owing to high usage in diverse end use in various firms, whereas synthetic sector has obtained traction after analyzing for period of 2017 – 2021 owing to high demand for tailored gypsum commodities.

 Construction Industry is Fueling Gypsum Consumption

Usage of Gypsum in Cement Production Results in Increasing Demand

Consumption of gypsum for cement production suppose to rise at a CAGR of 6.6% over the forecast period. Gypsum finds usages in various end use industries, with high utilization in cement, plaster, and drywalls.

Competitive Landscape

Through mergers, acquisitions, and collaborations, leading gypsum manufacturers are expanding their production plants. As a result, they are also investing in research and development to gain a competitive edge. 

In September 2021, in line with its May 20, 2021 announcement, a market lead announced that it had completed the acquisition of a leading global gypsum market player in the construction chemicals market, thanks to its comprehensive additives solutions for sustainable construction. This acquisition, perfectly in line with the strategy to position itself as a world leader in sustainable construction, allows to strengthen the presence in the growing construction chemicals market while benefiting from cost and sales synergies.

Sustainable Benefits of Gypsum

Gypsum mineral is non-toxic. It is a very common sulfate and represented as CaSO4.2H2O and chemically known as calcium sulfate dihydrate. It consists of water and calcium sulphate attached to oxygen. Gypsum is helpful to animals, humans, and plants. Calcium sulphate, generally called natural gypsum, is obtained from nature in different forms, often as dihydrate (CaSO 4 2H 2 O) and as anhydrite (CaSO 4 ), which are the result of total or partial evaporation of inland seas and lakes. Both anhydrite and dihydrate exist in nature in a variety of forms. Depending upon the types, the uses of gypsum varies.

Uses of Gypsum Powder

Heating produces a white powder from gypsum stone. This fine powder is smooth and is called gypsum powder. It is first crushed, heat-dried and then powdered.

1. Gypsum is applied as fertilizer.

2. Gypsum helps to prevents soil erosion, improves soil composition, helps water and air movement, and promotes growth of plant root.

3. Gypsum helps to balance micronutrients present in soil.

4. Gypsum powder has an important role in making drywalls.

5. Gypsum powder has application in the preparation of various types of tofu.

Applications of Gypsum in Agriculture

Interest in using gypsum as a management tool to improve crop yields and soil and water quality has recently increased. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, a by-product of cleaning sulfur from coal-fired power plants, has been widely available in major agricultural-producing regions over the past two decades. Currently, reports on the long-term sustainability of FGD gypsum use in agricultural systems is rare. Consequently, the American Society of Agronomy has produced a Community on “By-product Gypsum Uses in Agriculture” and a unique collection of technical research articles on FGD gypsum applications.

Gypsum has significant application for providing nutrients to plants and condition soil for agricultural production.

1. Gypsum gives nutrients to plants by providing sulphur and calcium. Calcium helps plants absorb nutrients through the roots, and sulphur helps to improve crop yield.

2. It can improve acid soils.

3. It uses in treating aluminium toxicity.

4. Adding lime or gypsum to dispersive soils decreases the sodium exchange percentage, reduces dispersion, and increases stable soil structure.

Gypsum in Construction

An overview of the origins, genesis, varieties, and properties of gypsum follows by a discussion of the most commonly produced material from gypsum, known in France as ‘plaster of Paris’. (β-semi-hydrate), in the USA under that of ‘calcined gypsum’, and in Germany under that of ‘Stuckgips’.

The article also describes in detail the properties of plaster paste (setting, expansion, adhesion) and those of hard plaster (strength, weight, thermal expansion, volume and linear changes under the influence of humidity fluctuations, absorption water, paintability, corrosion, thermal and acoustic insulation behaviour and fire resistance).

Sustainable benefits of gypsum products as a construction material

In recent years, interest has been growing in the use of gypsum as one of the most sustainable mineral binders. This chapter covers a range of gypsum products based on different modifications of gypsum binders.

The sustainability of gypsum products during their life cycle is considered. A sustainable life cycle includes the energy efficiency of different manufacturing technologies for gypsum products, the use of industrial wastes containing calcium sulphate dihydrate as substitutes for natural gypsum and the recycling of the wastes from gypsum-based construction materials (plasterboards, moulds) where they arise.

Sustainable uses of fgd Gypsum in Agricultural system

Interest in using gypsum as a management tool to improve crop yields and soil and water quality has recently increased. The abundant supply and availability of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, a by-product of scrubbing sulfur from combustion gases at coal-fired power plants in major agricultural producing regions within the last two decades, has contributed to this interest.

  Sustainable uses of fgd gypsum in the agricultural system focus on three general areas:

  1. Mercury and other trace element impacts
  2. Water quality impacts
  3. Agronomic responses and soil physical changes

Sustainable agricultural production systems can benefit from the use of FGD gypsum. The environmental impacts of FGD gypsum are primarily positive, with only a few negative results observed, even when applied at rates representing cumulative 80-year applications. Thus, FGD gypsum, if adequately managed, represents an vital potential input into agricultural systems.

Gypsum for crop grain production

Gypsum s mainly used in tropical and subtropical agriculture when subsoil acidity is a crucial yield-limiting factor. However, the conditions that promote increased crop yield due to gypsum addition in no-till (NT) systems still need to be clarified. A field trial examined the effects of newly and previously surface-applied gypsum in a long-term NT system on the soil chemical properties, nutrition, and yield of corn, wheat, and soybean. 

Gypsum applies on surface at 0 and 6 Mg ha−1 in 2004 on plots that had received gypsum previously at 0, 3, 6, and 9 Mg ha−1 in 1998. Surface-applied gypsum newly and previously improved exchangeable Ca and SO4–S availability throughout the soil profile and increased the cumulative grain yield of the crops. The loss of exchangeable K through leaching by gypsum application was low. And more significant mobility of exchangeable Mg than exchangeable K in soil was found due to gypsum addition.

An increase in Ca content in the corn, wheat, and soybean leaves and S content in the corn and wheat leaves occurred following the gypsum application. The use of gypsum showed economic viability to maximize crop grain production in long-term NT soil with a sufficient level of exchangeable Calcium (≥8 mmolc dm−3) and low levels of exchangeable Aluminium (≤4 mmolc dm−3) and Aluminium saturation (≤15%) in the subsoil layers (20–60 cm).

The Use of gypsum spheres for water flow routes determination

Firstly, Gypsum or plaster of Paris has been cast into spheres and placed in soils. The weight loss determines the relative water flow routes. Theoretical considerations and laboratory experimentation show that solutional weight loss of the material increases with increasing water flow.But it is independent of pH above pH 4. It results for gypsum sphere weight loss presents for soils. The tensiometres are used for the independenr measurement of moisture conditions. The data recommends that the weight loss method provides a viable time-integrated demonstration of relative water flow routes.

Other Benefits of Gypsum

  • Uses of Gypsum Board

Gypsum board is also called plasterboard, drywall or wallboard. It contains a paper surface and a non-combustible core. These boards are easy to install, and it has distinguished fire resistance. It helps in sound isolation by prohibiting the transfer of unnecessary sound. Also Gypsum is cheap and has excellent durability.

It helps prevent cracks by performing as wadding in gypsum wallboard mixed compound. It also serves in the production of ornaments.

Supporting the life

Gypsum hels to purify still water by seperating the impurities. For example, adding gypsum to ponds, so the dirt particles settle down without harming the aquatic life.

 It helps in treating orthopaedic and surgical casts.

 Humans can consume it, and so it is present in food as additive ice cream, flour, blue cheese, white bread etc.

An Overview on Gypsum

Natural gypsum, also called calcium sulphate, is found in different forms, mainly as a dihydrate (CaSO4 · 2H2O) and anhydrite (CaSO4). They are products of partial or total evaporation of inland seas and lakes. Gypsum undergoes crystallization as translucent crystals of selenite, forming as an evaporite mineral and as a hydration form of anhydrite. Both the dihydrate and the anhydrite occur in nature in a variety of forms. The origin of gypsum, its genesis, varieties and properties are discussed, and the focus is then on the most common binding material produced from it, plaster of Paris.

Uses of Gypsum mainly depend on its paste-like setting, expansion, and adhesion properties. Whereas hardened gypsum for strength, bulk weight, thermal expansion, volume and linear changes under humidity fluctuations, moisture absorption, paintability, corrosivity, thermal and acoustic insulation behaviour, and fire resistance.

Gypsum has been studied as a raw material, as a rock constituent, as an indicator of geological and archaeological conditions, and from other points of view. However, its role in Earth’s surface processes, its relationship to life through calcium in the equilibrium of carbonates and its structural water molecules seems overlooked. The semi-solubility of gypsum explains its actions in many soils. Gypsum’s softness, fragility, and crystal water should be considered.

Types of Gypsum Crystals

Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened and often twinned crystals and transparent, cleavable masses. It is called selenite. Selenite contains no significant selenium; both substances were named after the ancient Greek word for the Moon. Selenite may also occur in a silky, fibrous form, commonly called “satin spar”. Finally, it may also be granular or quite compact. In hand-sized samples, it can be anywhere from transparent to opaque. 

A fine-grained white or a lightly tinted variety of gypsum, called alabaster. It prizes for ornamental work of various sorts. In arid areas, gypsum can be flower-like, typically opaque, with embedded sand grains called desert roses. It also forms some of the largest crystals found in nature, up to 12 m (39 ft) long, in the form of selenite.

Occurrence

Gypsum is a common mineral with very thick and extensive evaporite beds associated with sedimentary rocks. Gypsum deposition happens under lake and sea water, in hot springs, volcanic vapours, and sulfate solutions in veins. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins commonly hydrates to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures. It often associates with halite and sulfur minerals, and is the most usual sulfate mineral. Pure gypsum is white in colour, but other substances found as impurities may give various colours to local deposits.

Since gypsum dissolves over time in the water, it is very rare in the sand form. However, the particular properties of White Sands National Park in the United States of New Mexico have created a 710 km square expanse of white gypsum sand. 

Gypsum also form as a byproduct of sulfide oxidation, amidst others by pyrite oxidation, by the reaction of sulfuric acid and calcium carbonate. Its presence shows the oxidizing conditions. Under reducing conditions, the sulfates contains reduce back to sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria. This can lead to the deposition of elemental sulfur in oil-bearing forms, such as salt domes, where it undergoes mining using the Frasch process to produce bulk volume of gypsum from the scrubbers.

Occupational safety

People who exposed to gypsum in the workplace by inhaling it in, making skin contact, and eye contact. Although calcium sulfate is nontoxic and even approved as a food additive, powdered form can irritate the skin and mucous membranes.

Synthesis

Various industrial processes yield synthetic gypsum as a waste product or by-product.

Desulfurization

Flue gas desulfurization gypsum, or FGDG, forms at some coal-fired power plants. The primary contaminants come from the limestone used in desulfurization and the coal burned. It is pure enough to replace natural gypsum in various fields, including drywalls, water treatment, and cement set retarders. Improvements in flue gas desulfurization significantly reduce the presence of harmful elements in it.

Desalination

Gypsum precipitates on salted water membranes, a process known as mineral salt scalings. During brackish water desalination with high concentrations of calcium and sulfate. Scaling decreases membrane life and productivity. This is the main difficulty in brackish water membrane desalination mechanisms like reverse osmosis or nanofiltration. Depending on the water source, other forms of scaling, such as calcite scaling, can also be essential considerations in distillation and heat exchangers. Here, either the solubility of salt or concentration may change promptly.

A new study has proposed that gypsum formation as tiny crystals of a mineral known as bassanite (CaSO4·0.5H2O). This process occurs mainly through three stages:

  1. Nucleation of nanocrystalline bassanite in a homogeneous manner;
  2. self-assembly of bassanite into aggregates, and
  3. conversion of bassanite into gypsum.

Refinery waste

The formation of phosphate fertilizers needs breaking down calcium-containing phosphate rock with acid. It then produces calcium sulfate waste known as phosphogypsum (PG). This form of gypsum is polluted by impurities present in the rock, namely fluoride, silica, radioactive elements (radium), and heavy metal elements like cadmium. Similarly, the manufacturing of titanium dioxide yields titanium gypsum (TG) due to the neutralization of surplus acid with lime. The product is impure with silica, fluorides, organic matter, and alkalis.

In many cases, impurities in refinery gypsum waste have prevented them from being used as regular gypsum in fields like construction. As a result, waste gypsum is collected in stacks , with a significant risk of leaching the impurities into water and soil. To lower the accumulation and to clear out these problem, research is on the way to find more applications for such waste products.

  At Khaitan bio energy various new technologies are used for treating sugars, dewatering, and recycling using energy-efficient techniques, and these technologies are first in use cases in ethanol production. The process is monitored and managed with high-reliable devices and software. As is evident, we extract Gypsum too in addition to silica. This is a major breakthrough in establishing commercial viability for the technology and compete with ethanol produced from other sources.