Silica and Gypsum Recovery Strategies in Lignocellulosic Biorefineries


Biorefineries have recently gathered considerable attention as the global community seeks sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels and petrochemical-based goods. The biorefinery sector increasingly relies on lignocellulosic biomass, typically sourced from wood, agricultural residue, and energy crops. Therefore this renewable resource offers the potential for producing biofuels, chemicals, and value-added products. Lignocellulosic biomass is primarily composes of three main constituents, namely cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. By separating and processing these constituents in a biorefinery, valuable products like bioethanol, biopolymers, and bio-based chemicals can be produced. Nevertheless, the process may also generate by-products such as silica and gypsum. This blog delves into the silica and gypsum recovery strategies in the lignocellulosic biorefineries.

Silica naturally occurs in many plant species. And it can be released and concentrated during biomass processing. Gypsum is also known as calcium sulfate dihydrate. It is formed when sulfur compounds are removed during biomass processing. Although these by-products are typically regarded as waste, they can be transformed into valuable resources through the implementation of appropriate strategies. 

Silica and Gypsum Recovery Strategies

There are several strategies to make the most of the silica and gypsum byproducts in lignocellulosic biorefineries. They are:

Silica Recovery

Silica Precipitation:

It can be separated from the process streams through precipitation. This involves adjusting the pH and temperature to encourage silica particles to form aggregates and settle out. Once separation is over, the silica undergoes further processing for using in various applications, such as as a reinforcing agent in rubber and plastics.

Silica Nanoparticle Production: 

Silica nanoparticles have many applications in industries like medicine, electronics, and materials science. Therefore lignocellulosic biorefineries can adapt their processes to produce these valuable nanoparticles from recovered silica.

Agricultural Use: 

Silica is beneficial in agriculture as it enhances plant growth and provides resistance against various stresses. By recovering silica and incorporating it into agricultural products, biorefineries can contribute to sustainable farming practices.

Gypsum Recovery

Gypsum Precipitation: 

It can be recovered by controlling the pH and temperature in the process. Once precipitation is over, it then undergoes separation and utilized in various applications, including construction materials and as a soil conditioner.

Sulfur Recovery: 

Sulfur compounds removed in the biorefinery process can also be captured and reused, reducing the need for external sulfur sources.

Gypsum Recycling: 

In areas where gypsum is in high demand for construction and agriculture, the recovered gypsum can be directly used or sold to external markets.

The Benefits of Silica and Gypsum Recovery

Resource Efficiency: 

One of the primary benefits of silica and gypsum recovery is promoting resource efficiency. By capturing and reusing these by-products, industries can reduce their reliance on virgin materials. This not only conserves natural resources but also lowers the cost of production.

Waste Reduction: 

Silica and gypsum recovery initiatives contribute to waste reduction. Instead of being treated as waste and disposed of, these byproducts are transformed into valuable resources, lessening the environmental burden associated with waste disposal.

Environmental Sustainability:

Recovery strategies for silica and gypsum support environmental sustainability. The reduction in waste generation minimizes the ecological footprint of industrial operations. Additionally, using recovered materials decreases the demand for new resource extraction, which can be ecologically damaging.

Economic viability:

Implementing recovery processes can be economically advantageous. Silica and gypsum, once reclaimed and processed, can be sold as valuable products. This not only offsets costs but also generates additional revenue streams, enhancing the overall financial viability of the operations.

Improved Environmental Compliance: 

Many industries face regulatory requirements for waste management and emissions control. Proper recovery and utilization of silica and gypsum can assist industries in achieving and maintaining environmental compliance, reducing the risk of fines and penalties.

Diversification of Revenue Streams: 

The recovery of silica and gypsum introduces a diversification of revenue streams. Also, Industries that may have primarily focused on their primary product markets can now profit from secondary markets for these recovered materials. This diversification can act as a buffer against market fluctuations.

Value-Added Products: 

Silica and gypsum can produce a range of value-added products. For instance, recovered silica can be used as a reinforcing agent in rubber and plastics or in the production of silica nanoparticles, which have applications in various high-tech industries.

Construction and Agriculture:

Gypsum recovery directly applies to the construction and agriculture sectors. Recovered gypsum can be used to produce construction materials and as a soil conditioner in agriculture, enhancing soil structure and nutrient availability.

Challenges and Future Directions

While the advantages of silica and gypsum recovery are considerable, they are not without difficulties. It is imperative to develop recovery methods that are both efficient and cost-effective, and careful consideration must be given to the market demand for these reclaimed materials. Furthermore, industries must navigate the complexities of regulations to ensure compliance with environmental standards. Looking towards the future, continuous research and development are crucial. Innovations in recovery processes can further enhance efficiency and sustainability.

Collaboration between industries and government agencies can facilitate the establishment of best practices and regulatory frameworks that support efforts in silica and gypsum recovery. In conclusion, silica and gypsum recovery is an appealing concept that embodies sustainability, resource efficiency, and economic viability. By transforming waste into valuable resources, industries can simultaneously reduce their impact on the environment and improve profitability. The benefits of silica and gypsum recovery extend beyond individual businesses, as they contribute to a more circular and responsible approach to global resource management.

The Environmental Impact of Silica and Gypsum Mining: Unveiling Hidden Consequences


 Mining is integral to our industrial society, providing raw materials for various industries. Silica and gypsum are two minerals extensively mined for their diverse applications. However, the environmental repercussions of mining operations are often overlooked. This blog aims to shed light on the environmental impact of silica and gypsum mining. By examining the extraction processes, ecosystem disturbances, water and air pollution, and the long-term consequences on surrounding communities, we can better understand the hidden costs of these mining activities and explore sustainable alternatives for a greener future.

Impacts of Silica Mining

Silica mining, the extraction of silica (silicon dioxide) from the Earth’s crust, significantly impacts the environment, human health, and communities near mining operations. Silica is widely used in various industries due to its unique properties, but the extraction process and associated activities can have detrimental consequences.

Environmental Impacts Silica mining can lead to severe environmental impacts

Clearing vegetation and soil erosion during mining operations can result in habitat destruction, biodiversity loss, and ecosystem disruption. The removal of vegetation can also contribute to increased runoff and soil degradation. Additionally, the excavation of mines and deposition of waste materials can alter the topography and hydrology of the area, affecting natural drainage patterns and water availability.

Air Pollution and Respiratory Health Risks

One of the major concerns associated with silica mining is the generation of fine silica dust, known as respirable crystalline silica (RCS). The crushing, grinding, and handling of silica ore release RCS particles into the air, which workers and nearby communities can inhale. Prolonged exposure to RCS can lead to serious respiratory diseases such as silicosis, lung cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Water Resource Contamination

Impacts of Silica mining activities include contamination of water resources. The extraction process often requires significant amounts of water for washing and processing the silica ore. Improper handling and discharge of wastewater containing chemicals and suspended solids can pollute surface and groundwater sources. This contamination can harm aquatic ecosystems, water quality, and the availability of clean water for surrounding communities.

Socio-economic Implications

Silica mining can have socio-economic consequences for nearby communities. Mining operations may lead to the displacement of local communities and the loss of traditional livelihoods, such as agriculture and fishing. Additionally, mining activities can create social disruptions, including increased migration, changes in community dynamics, and conflicts over resource access and land rights.

Mitigation and Regulation

To mitigate the impacts of silica mining, regulatory measures and responsible practices are essential. Implementing stringent environmental regulations can ensure the proper management of waste materials, including the safe disposal of tailings and the prevention of water contamination. Dust control measures, such as wetting or covering operations, should be implemented to reduce the release of RCS particles into the air. Adequate ventilation systems and personal protective equipment must be provided to protect the health and safety of workers.

Community Engagement and Sustainable Mining Practices

Engaging with local communities and incorporating their perspectives in decision-making is crucial for sustainable silica mining. Implementing community development programs, such as education and skills training, can support the socio-economic well-being of affected communities. Encouraging the adoption of sustainable mining practices, including land reclamation and biodiversity restoration, can help minimize the long-term environmental impacts of silica mining.

In conclusion, silica mining significantly impacts the environment, human health, and communities. Environmental degradation, air pollution, water contamination, and socio-economic disruptions are some of the key concerns associated with silica mining. Implementing strict regulations, adopting responsible mining practices, and engaging with local communities are essential steps towards minimizing these impacts and ensuring the sustainable extraction of silica.

Impacts of Gypsum Mining:

Alarming Impacts of gypsum mining on Ecosystems and Water Resources

Gypsum mining, predominantly carried out for its use in the construction industry, has its own set of environmental challenges. Gypsum extraction through open-cast mining can lead to habitat fragmentation, biodiversity loss, and altered soil composition. The process involves removing overlying layers of soil and vegetation, resulting in irreversible damage to local ecosystems. Furthermore, gypsum mining often requires explosives, further intensifying the impact on surrounding flora and fauna.

Gypsum mining is the extraction of the mineral gypsum, a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, from the Earth’s crust. Gypsum is widely used in various industries, including construction, agriculture, and manufacturing. It is primarily used in the production of plaster, wallboard, cement, and fertilizers. However, gypsum mining activities can have several environmental and socio-economic consequences.

Environmental Consequences of Gypsum Mining

Gypsum mining can lead to various environmental impacts. The extraction process often involves clearing large areas of land, resulting in habitat destruction and loss of biodiversity. The removal of vegetation and topsoil can lead to soil erosion and degradation. Mining operations can also disrupt hydrological systems, affecting water flow patterns and potentially leading to the drying up of nearby water sources. Additionally, the disposal of waste materials, such as overburden and tailings, can impact nearby ecosystems and water bodies.

Health and Safety Concerns

Gypsum mining poses certain health and safety risks to workers. The extraction and processing of gypsum can generate dust, including respirable crystalline silica, which can be hazardous if inhaled. Prolonged exposure to gypsum dust can cause respiratory issues, including silicosis and other lung diseases. Adequate safety measures, such as dust control systems and personal protective equipment, should be implemented to protect workers’ health.

Socio-economic Implications

Gypsum mining can have socio-economic consequences, both positive and negative. On the positive side, mining activities can contribute to local employment opportunities, economic growth, and infrastructure development in mining regions. The industry may also provide a source of revenue for governments through taxes and royalties. However, the negative impacts should not be overlooked. Mining operations can disrupt local communities, leading to the displacement of people and the loss of traditional livelihoods. Moreover, the unsustainable extraction of gypsum can deplete resources, leaving behind degraded landscapes and limited opportunities for future economic activities.

Mitigation Measures

To address the impacts of gypsum mining, effective mitigation measures should be implemented. These measures include adopting sustainable mining practices that minimize environmental impacts and promote ecosystem restoration. Strategies such as land reclamation, soil conservation, and water management can help restore mined areas and mitigate soil erosion and water resource issues. Furthermore, ensuring proper ventilation and dust control measures can protect the health and safety of workers.

Promoting Alternatives and Recycling

To reduce the demand for gypsum mining, promoting alternatives and recycling can be beneficial. For example, using recycled gypsum products can help conserve resources and reduce the environmental footprint associated with mining. Additionally, exploring alternative materials for construction and manufacturing purposes can help diversify the industry and minimize the reliance on gypsum extraction.

In conclusion, gypsum mining has several environmental, health, and socio-economic consequences. Habitat destruction, soil erosion, water resource impacts, health risks for workers, and disruptions to local communities are among the key concerns associated with gypsum mining. By implementing appropriate mitigation measures, promoting sustainable practices, and exploring alternatives, the negative impacts of gypsum mining can be minimized while ensuring the continued availability of gypsum for various industries.

Sustainable Solutions for Responsible Mining of Silica and Gypsum to reduce Impacts

Responsible mining refers to the extraction of minerals in a manner that minimizes environmental impacts of silica and gypsum, prioritizes worker safety, respects local communities, and promotes sustainable practices. Applying sustainable solutions to silica and gypsum mining can help mitigate the negative consequences associated with these activities.

Environmental Stewardship

One sustainable solution for responsible mining is implementing strong environmental stewardship practices. This includes conducting thorough environmental impact assessments before commencing mining operations to identify potential risks and develop appropriate mitigation strategies. Additionally, adopting sustainable land management techniques such as land reclamation and reforestation can help restore ecosystems and minimize habitat destruction. Using advanced technologies for dust control and wastewater management can also reduce pollution and preserve water resources.

Worker Safety

Ensuring the safety and health of workers is crucial for responsible mining. Companies should prioritize implementing robust health and safety protocols, including providing proper training and protective equipment to minimize exposure to hazardous substances such as respirable crystalline silica. Regular monitoring and assessments of air quality and worker health can help identify and address potential risks. Collaborating with local health authorities and providing access to healthcare services for workers can further enhance worker well-being.

Stakeholder Engagement and Community Development

Engaging with stakeholders and fostering positive relationships with local communities is a vital aspect of responsible mining. Mining companies should involve community members in decision-making processes, seeking their input and addressing their concerns. Implementing transparent communication channels and providing timely and accurate information about mining operations can build trust and ensure the community’s participation in the benefits generated by mining activities. Supporting community development initiatives, such as education and infrastructure projects, can further contribute to long-term sustainability.

Recycling and Circular Economy Approaches

Promoting recycling and circular economy approaches can reduce the reliance on primary mineral extraction. Companies can invest in research and development to find innovative ways to recycle and reuse silica and gypsum waste products. This can involve developing technologies for the recycling of gypsum-based materials, encouraging the use of recycled materials in construction and manufacturing, and exploring alternative materials with similar properties to reduce the demand for primary mineral extraction.

Alarming Impacts on Ecosystems and Water Resources

Gypsum mining, predominantly carried out for its use in the construction industry, has its own set of environmental challenges. Gypsum extraction through open-cast mining can lead to habitat fragmentation, biodiversity loss, and altered soil composition. The process involves removing overlying layers of soil and vegetation, resulting in irreversible damage to local ecosystems. Furthermore, gypsum mining often requires explosives, further intensifying the impact on surrounding flora and fauna.

Collaboration and Industry Standards

Collaboration among mining companies, industry associations, governments, and non-governmental organizations are essential for establishing and implementing responsible mining practices. Developing industry standards and certifications for responsible mining can provide a framework for companies to follow and allow for independent assessments of their operations. Sharing best practices and lessons learned can foster continuous improvement across the mining sector.

In conclusion, responsible mining of silica and gypsum requires adopting sustainable solutions that prioritize environmental stewardship, worker safety, community engagement, and recycling. By implementing these strategies, mining companies can mitigate the negative consequences of mining activities, contribute to sustainable development, and ensure the long-term availability of these minerals for various industries.

Sustainable Development-Exploring the Benefits of Silica and Gypsum


In the quest for sustainable development, it is crucial to identify and utilize natural resources that meet our present needs and preserve future generations’ well-being. Two such resources that play a significant role in various industries and have the potential for sustainable development are gypsum and silica. These minerals offer many applications, from construction materials to environmental remediation. This blog explores how gypsum and silica are natural resources for sustainable development, highlighting their properties, applications, and environmental benefits.
Sustainable development is a key component to protecting the environment and the natural resources we rely on. Silica and gypsum are two of these natural resources that has application in ways that are beneficial to sustainable development. From providing a low-cost building material to serving as a source of energy, silica and gypsum have a lot to offer in terms of sustainability. In this blog post, we’ll explore the potential benefits of these two natural resources for sustainable development.

Importance of natural resources for sustainable development

Natural resources play a crucial role in sustainable development, as they are the foundation for economic growth, social progress, and environmental stability. These resources, including air, water, land, minerals, and biodiversity, provide essential goods and services that support human well-being and the functioning of ecosystems.

Natural resources’ contribution to economic growth is one of key importance for sustainable development. Many industries rely on natural resources as inputs for production, such as agriculture, forestry, mining, and energy. These sectors generate employment opportunities, stimulate economic activity, and contribute national income. Sustainable management of natural resources ensures their availability for future generations, allowing for long-term economic development.

Moreover, natural resources are closely linking to social progress. Access to clean water, nutritious food, and adequate shelter are fundamental human rights that depend on the availability and sustainable use of natural resources. For example, forests provide timber for construction, while rivers and lakes supply water for domestic use and irrigation. By ensuring equitable access to natural resources, sustainable development promotes social equity and improves the quality of life for all individuals.

Environmental stability

It is another critical aspect of sustainable development that relies on natural resources. Ecosystems provide essential services, such as climate regulation, water purification, and soil fertility, which are vital for maintaining a healthy environment. Biodiversity, the variety of life on Earth, is also a natural resource that supports ecosystem resilience and provides numerous benefits, including medicinal plants, pollination, and genetic resources for agriculture. Protecting and conserving natural resources is essential to mitigate climate change, preserve biodiversity, and maintain the planet’s overall health.

The importance of natural resources for sustainable development cannot be overstated. They are the building blocks of economic growth, social progress, and environmental stability. By managing these resources sustainably, we can ensure their availability for future generations, promote social equity, and protect the planet’s health. Investing in the sustainable use and conservation of natural resources is a wise economic decision and a moral imperative to create a better and more sustainable future for all.

The Environmental Benefits Of Gypsum and Silica focusing Sustainable development

Image of silica sand using for sustainable development

Silica and gypsum are two natural resources that offer significant environmental benefits when used in various applications.


It is also known as silicon dioxide, is a versatile mineral that is widely available in nature. It has numerous environmental benefits when utilized in different industries. One of the key advantages of silica is its use in the production of solar panels. Silica is a crucial component in the manufacturing of photovoltaic cells, which convert sunlight into electricity. Solar energy is a clean and renewable source of power, and by using silica in solar panels, we can reduce our reliance on fossil fuels and decrease greenhouse gas emissions. Additionally, silica is commonly used as a desiccant, which helps to control moisture and humidity levels in various products and environments. By preventing excess moisture, silica can help prevent the growth of mold and mildew, which can have detrimental effects on indoor air quality and human health. This can be particularly beneficial in buildings, warehouses, and storage facilities.


It is a mineral composed of calcium sulfate. It also offers several environmental advantages. One of the primary uses of gypsum is in the construction industry, where it is has application as a building material. Gypsum-based products, such as drywall, provide excellent fire resistance and sound insulation properties. By using gypsum in construction, we can enhance the safety and comfort of buildings while reducing the need for energy-intensive materials.

Furthermore, gypsum has soil amendment properties. When applied to agricultural fields, gypsum helps improve soil structure, water infiltration, and nutrient availability. This can lead to increased crop yields and reduced soil erosion. By utilizing gypsum in agriculture, we can promote sustainable farming practices and reduce the need for synthetic fertilizers, which can have negative environmental impacts.

In conclusion, silica and gypsum offer significant environmental benefits in various applications. From their use in solar panels to improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, to their role in construction and agriculture, these natural resources contribute to a more sustainable and environmentally friendly future. By harnessing the potential of silica and gypsum, we can mitigate climate change, enhance resource efficiency, and promote a healthier planet for generations to come.

Understanding Gypsum:

Gypsum, a soft sulfate mineral, is abundant in nature and possesses unique properties that make it invaluable in numerous industries. Its main component, calcium sulfate dihydrate, lends gypsum its distinctive features such as fire resistance, sound insulation, and excellent binding capabilities. These properties have made gypsum an essential ingredient in construction materials like drywall, cement, and plaster. The widespread use of gypsum-based products helps reduce environmental impact, as gypsum is a natural and readily available alternative to more energy-intensive materials.

Harnessing Silica:

Silica, or silicon dioxide, is another versatile natural resource with immense potential for sustainable development. Silica has various forms, including quartz, sand, and diatomaceous Earth. Its exceptional properties, such as high heat resistance, hardness, and electrical conductivity, make it valuable in multiple industries. Silica finds applications in producing glass, ceramics, electronics, solar panels, and even as a catalyst in chemical processes. The abundance of silica in the Earth’s crust and its recyclability contribute to its sustainability, making it an ideal resource for future development.

Sustainable Construction:

Gypsum and silica play crucial roles in the construction industry, where sustainability is a growing concern. Gypsum-based materials offer advantages such as fire resistance, thermal insulation, and moisture control, reducing energy consumption and enhancing indoor air quality. Moreover, gypsum can be recycled and reused multiple times without significantly degrading its properties, minimizing waste and conserving resources. Silica-based materials, like energy-efficient glass and sustainable concrete additives, contribute to greener construction practices, improving energy efficiency and durability.

Environmental Remediation:

Beyond construction, gypsum and silica have applications in environmental remediation. Gypsum has proven effective in soil conditioning, improving fertility, and reducing erosion. Its ability to bind with heavy metals and reduce soil salinity makes it an environmentally friendly choice for land reclamation projects. Silica, on the other hand, has adsorbent properties that enable it to capture and remove pollutants from air and water. Silica-based materials like activated carbon and silica gel are widely used for air filtration and water treatment, contributing to cleaner environments.

Future Prospects:

As the world moves toward a more sustainable future, the utilization of gypsum and silica is expected to expand further. Ongoing research and innovation aim to enhance their properties, explore new applications, and optimize their extraction and processing methods to minimize environmental impact. From developing eco-friendly construction materials to advancing clean energy technologies, gypsum and silica are poised to play pivotal roles in sustainable development initiatives.

Gypsum and silica are natural resources that offer immense potential for sustainable development across various industries. Their unique properties, versatility, and recyclability make them valuable alternatives to resource-intensive materials. By incorporating gypsum and silica into construction practices, environmental remediation projects, and other applications, we can reduce the ecological footprint and move closer to a more sustainable and greener future. Embracing the potential of these natural resources is beneficial for industries and preserving the well-being of our planet and future generations.

Gypsum -Global Market

Gypsum Market Outlook

The global gypsum market is projected to reach US$ 4.3 Bn in 2022. The global demand for gypsum expect to increase by 6.2% CAGR by 2032, reaching US$ 7.8 Bn. Global gypsum market is supposed to be driven by the rising construction of various global projects. The annual growth rate from 2018 to 2023 is anticipated at 4.0%, increasing to 8.2%for 2023-2028. According to a report, Gypsum production is increasing in recent years, and it is suppose to contribute about 2% to 3% to the global mineral output

The key barometer used to predict the economic state of the gypsum industry is the construction industry. If the construction industry is an expansive market, the demand for gypsum products also increases. Increasing demand for construction materials such as drywall, plasterboard, cement, and others suppose to raise demand for Gypsum. Sales in its market show 11.5% of the global construction chemicals market.

Key factors affecting the Global Gypsum Market Growth

In the upcoming years, the key factors specified below expects to affect the industry growth and use of gypsum in different end-use applications:

  • Diversification
  • Durability
  • Regulatory trends
  • Recycling and sustainability
  • Regional trends
  • Prefabrication.


 New demands in construction will lead to the developing of gypsum products and see companies diversify their product portfolios. This will create a price premium for higher-performance products that offer superior durability and environmental performance. At the top of the market, there will be some scope for plasterboards with smart functionality, such as monitoring moisture content.


 End users will demand more durable gypsum products to resist impact and water damage in response to more demanding building regulations. Therefore this will require refinements in gypsum production to optimise these products.

Regulatory trends

The International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) and International Green Construction Code (IgCC) will directly impact the plasterboard’s future potential. Of course similar codes are there in other countries too. A change in the building code often is a catalyst for innovation and product development. Laws in many jurisdictions will require closer monitoring of materials used in construction. This will require closer monitoring of supply chains and exact disclosure of product composition.

The energy codes have fostered product development as there is now a requirement for the exterior walls to incorporate an air barrier. Environmental regulations are also having a big effect on the market. Concern over greenhouse gas emissions and global climate change is forcing the market to consider greener options.

Recycling and sustainability

There is increasing pressure to recycle building products after their useful life. Part of the pressure comes from end-use influencers, architects, and part of it is regulation changes on how much material can be landfilled. As a result, a new industry is rising around the recycling of gypsum, specifically plasterboard products. Some plasterboard manufacturers are promoting program to recycle plasterboard products that went to construction sites.

Government regulations and green building initiatives will develop a catalyst for distributors to explore value adding services that divert used gypsum from land filling. Clearly the main focus will be for greater emphasis on gypsum recycling and its conversion into a new form of construction materials. In the US, standards are being developed to help guide the practice of recycling. However these guidelines include defining what materials undergo recycling, how to segregate the waste at construction sites and the proper marking for these materials.

Regional trends

 Many transition economies will see more demand for gypsum as urbanization is booming and adopt plasterboards as an alternative to wet construction techniques employing cement and plaster. The adoption of plasterboard in developing countries is truly gaining traction. Countries that traditionally used wet trades (plaster, cement) and technology are moving more and more into plasterboard construction. When a new product is introduced into a region, it is typically manufactured elsewhere and imported to the new market. As the supply chain to support local production simply does not exist at an early stage. As the product becomes established, so does demand, creating the impetus for local production.

Italy is a good example of this in that for many years, and it did not have any local plasterboard manufacturing facilities.

Panelisation for prefabrication

The desire to reduce construction time while increasing quality has led to a renewed emphasis on panelisation. As builders continue to move towards greater pre fabrication and panelisation, gypsum suppliers require to develop plasterboards and other products that can be adapted to these construction methods. Small companies are emerging that specialize in panelizing specific components on commercial projects. Forward-thinking contractors are setting up divisions simply focused on panelisation. While penalization is nothing new, what is driving it is incorporating building information modelling (BIM) into the process.

Country-wise Insights

 Driving factor of Gypsum Market-U.S

High Consumption of Gypsum for the Production of Drywall in the U.S. Will Fuel Growth

In 2021, the demand for Gypsum in the U.S. market grew by 4.9% each year and suppose to be about 50 Million Tons in 2022. The U.S. is the second largest producer of Gypsum, following China. According to world mining data, the total production of crude Gypsum across the country was recorded at about 22 Mn Tons in 2020.

High demand for drywall and plasterboards from the building & construction departments in the U.S. makes it a basic trader of Gypsum and its products. In addition the rising demand of PoP in the interior dezigning sector boost sales over the judgement duration.

Driving factor of Gypsum Market-China

Increasing Usage of Plasterboard in the Residential Sector in China Will Spur Demand”

China is the key producer and consumer of Gypsum. About 78% of the overall gypsum utilization will be in East Asia in 2022. The high demand in the country makes China a lucrative market for gypsum producers.

According to World Mining Data, China expect to be the predominant producer of Gypsum, followed by America, Iran, and Turkey. Moreover, in China, the total production of natural Gypsum is expected to be recorded at 25 Mn tons in 2020.

Consistent growth in the country’s construction industry is fuelling the demand for construction materials. Since gypsum is an essential constituent in producing various vital construction materials like cement, gypsum board, plasterboard, Plaster of Paris, Gypsum plaster and numerous others, and is getting traction.

Indian Gypsum Market in India

The high demand for gypsum plaster in India will contribute to the industries’ growth.

The increasing expansion in India’s building & construction sector expects to fuel Gypsum sales at a 7% CAGR over the assessment period.

It is increasing the construction of various projects across urban cities in India, bolstering Gypsum’s demand. Moreover, consistent growth in the production of cement also expects to boost growth in the gypsum market.

Category-wise Insights

Natural Gypsum

It is the Most Preferred Product Type in the Market  

Natural Gypsum to Remain High in Adoption

Considering the product type, natural gypsum suppose to dominate the Gypsum market. As per FMI, sales of natural gypsum seems to file each year at a growth of about 5.8% .

The natural segment suppose to gain high BPS points over the forecast duration owing to high usage in diverse end use in various firms, whereas synthetic sector has obtained traction after analyzing for period of 2017 – 2021 owing to high demand for tailored gypsum commodities.

 Construction Industry is Fueling Gypsum Consumption

Usage of Gypsum in Cement Production Results in Increasing Demand

Consumption of gypsum for cement production suppose to rise at a CAGR of 6.6% over the forecast period. Gypsum finds usages in various end use industries, with high utilization in cement, plaster, and drywalls.

Competitive Landscape

Through mergers, acquisitions, and collaborations, leading gypsum manufacturers are expanding their production plants. As a result, they are also investing in research and development to gain a competitive edge. 

In September 2021, in line with its May 20, 2021 announcement, a market lead announced that it had completed the acquisition of a leading global gypsum market player in the construction chemicals market, thanks to its comprehensive additives solutions for sustainable construction. This acquisition, perfectly in line with the strategy to position itself as a world leader in sustainable construction, allows to strengthen the presence in the growing construction chemicals market while benefiting from cost and sales synergies.

Sustainable Benefits of Gypsum

What is Gypsum?

Gypsum mineral is non-toxic. It is a very common sulfate and represented as CaSO4.2H2O and chemically known as calcium sulfate dihydrate. It consists of water and calcium sulphate attached to oxygen. Gypsum is helpful to animals, humans, and plants. Calcium sulphate, generally called natural gypsum, is obtained from nature in different forms, often as dihydrate (CaSO 4 2H 2 O) and as anhydrite (CaSO 4 ), which are the result of total or partial evaporation of inland seas and lakes. Both anhydrite and dihydrate exist in nature in a variety of forms. Depending upon the types, the uses of gypsum varies.

Uses of Gypsum Powder

Heating produces a white powder from gypsum stone. This fine powder is smooth and is called gypsum powder. It is first crushed, heat-dried and then powdered.

1. Gypsum is applied as fertilizer.

2. Gypsum helps to prevents soil erosion, improves soil composition, helps water and air movement, and promotes growth of plant root.

3. Gypsum helps to balance micronutrients present in soil.

4. Gypsum powder has an important role in making drywalls.

5. Gypsum powder has application in the preparation of various types of tofu.

Applications of Gypsum in Agriculture

Interest in using gypsum as a management tool to improve crop yields and soil and water quality has recently increased. Flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, a by-product of cleaning sulfur from coal-fired power plants, has been widely available in major agricultural-producing regions over the past two decades. Currently, reports on the long-term sustainability of FGD gypsum use in agricultural systems is rare. Consequently, the American Society of Agronomy has produced a Community on “By-product Gypsum Uses in Agriculture” and a unique collection of technical research articles on FGD gypsum applications.

Gypsum has significant application for providing nutrients to plants and condition soil for agricultural production.

1. Gypsum gives nutrients to plants by providing sulphur and calcium. Calcium helps plants absorb nutrients through the roots, and sulphur helps to improve crop yield.

2. It can improve acid soils.

3. It uses in treating aluminium toxicity.

4. Adding lime or gypsum to dispersive soils decreases the sodium exchange percentage, reduces dispersion, and increases stable soil structure.

Gypsum in Construction

An overview of the origins, genesis, varieties, and properties of gypsum follows by a discussion of the most commonly produced material from gypsum, known in France as ‘plaster of Paris’. (β-semi-hydrate), in the USA under that of ‘calcined gypsum’, and in Germany under that of ‘Stuckgips’.

The article also describes in detail the properties of plaster paste (setting, expansion, adhesion) and those of hard plaster (strength, weight, thermal expansion, volume and linear changes under the influence of humidity fluctuations, absorption water, paintability, corrosion, thermal and acoustic insulation behaviour and fire resistance).

Sustainable benefits of gypsum products as a construction material

In recent years, interest has been growing in the use of gypsum as one of the most sustainable mineral binders. This chapter covers a range of gypsum products based on different modifications of gypsum binders.

The sustainability of gypsum products during their life cycle is considered. A sustainable life cycle includes the energy efficiency of different manufacturing technologies for gypsum products, the use of industrial wastes containing calcium sulphate dihydrate as substitutes for natural gypsum and the recycling of the wastes from gypsum-based construction materials (plasterboards, moulds) where they arise.

Sustainable uses of fgd Gypsum in Agricultural system

Interest in using gypsum as a management tool to improve crop yields and soil and water quality has recently increased. The abundant supply and availability of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) gypsum, a by-product of scrubbing sulfur from combustion gases at coal-fired power plants in major agricultural producing regions within the last two decades, has contributed to this interest.

  Sustainable uses of fgd gypsum in the agricultural system focus on three general areas:

  1. Mercury and other trace element impacts
  2. Water quality impacts
  3. Agronomic responses and soil physical changes

Sustainable agricultural production systems can benefit from the use of FGD gypsum. The environmental impacts of FGD gypsum are primarily positive, with only a few negative results observed, even when applied at rates representing cumulative 80-year applications. Thus, FGD gypsum, if adequately managed, represents an vital potential input into agricultural systems.

Gypsum for crop grain production

Gypsum s mainly used in tropical and subtropical agriculture when subsoil acidity is a crucial yield-limiting factor. However, the conditions that promote increased crop yield due to gypsum addition in no-till (NT) systems still need to be clarified. A field trial examined the effects of newly and previously surface-applied gypsum in a long-term NT system on the soil chemical properties, nutrition, and yield of corn, wheat, and soybean. 

Gypsum applies on surface at 0 and 6 Mg ha−1 in 2004 on plots that had received gypsum previously at 0, 3, 6, and 9 Mg ha−1 in 1998. Surface-applied gypsum newly and previously improved exchangeable Ca and SO4–S availability throughout the soil profile and increased the cumulative grain yield of the crops. The loss of exchangeable K through leaching by gypsum application was low. And more significant mobility of exchangeable Mg than exchangeable K in soil was found due to gypsum addition.

An increase in Ca content in the corn, wheat, and soybean leaves and S content in the corn and wheat leaves occurred following the gypsum application. The use of gypsum showed economic viability to maximize crop grain production in long-term NT soil with a sufficient level of exchangeable Calcium (≥8 mmolc dm−3) and low levels of exchangeable Aluminium (≤4 mmolc dm−3) and Aluminium saturation (≤15%) in the subsoil layers (20–60 cm).

The Use of gypsum spheres for water flow routes determination

Firstly, Gypsum or plaster of Paris has been cast into spheres and placed in soils. The weight loss determines the relative water flow routes. Theoretical considerations and laboratory experimentation show that solutional weight loss of the material increases with increasing water flow.But it is independent of pH above pH 4. It results for gypsum sphere weight loss presents for soils. The tensiometres are used for the independenr measurement of moisture conditions. The data recommends that the weight loss method provides a viable time-integrated demonstration of relative water flow routes.

Other Benefits of Gypsum

  • Uses of Gypsum Board

Gypsum board is also called plasterboard, drywall or wallboard. It contains a paper surface and a non-combustible core. These boards are easy to install, and it has distinguished fire resistance. It helps in sound isolation by prohibiting the transfer of unnecessary sound. Also Gypsum is cheap and has excellent durability.

It helps prevent cracks by performing as wadding in gypsum wallboard mixed compound. It also serves in the production of ornaments.

Supporting the life

Gypsum hels to purify still water by seperating the impurities. For example, adding gypsum to ponds, so the dirt particles settle down without harming the aquatic life.

 It helps in treating orthopaedic and surgical casts.

 Humans can consume it, and so it is present in food as additive ice cream, flour, blue cheese, white bread etc.

An Overview on Gypsum

Natural gypsum, also called calcium sulphate, is found in different forms, mainly as a dihydrate (CaSO4 · 2H2O) and anhydrite (CaSO4). They are products of partial or total evaporation of inland seas and lakes. Gypsum undergoes crystallization as translucent crystals of selenite, forming as an evaporite mineral and as a hydration form of anhydrite. Both the dihydrate and the anhydrite occur in nature in a variety of forms. The origin of gypsum, its genesis, varieties and properties are discussed, and the focus is then on the most common binding material produced from it, plaster of Paris.

Uses of Gypsum mainly depend on its paste-like setting, expansion, and adhesion properties. Whereas hardened gypsum for strength, bulk weight, thermal expansion, volume and linear changes under humidity fluctuations, moisture absorption, paintability, corrosivity, thermal and acoustic insulation behaviour, and fire resistance.

Gypsum has been studied as a raw material, as a rock constituent, as an indicator of geological and archaeological conditions, and from other points of view. However, its role in Earth’s surface processes, its relationship to life through calcium in the equilibrium of carbonates and its structural water molecules seems overlooked. The semi-solubility of gypsum explains its actions in many soils. Gypsum’s softness, fragility, and crystal water should be considered.

Types of Gypsum Crystals

Gypsum occurs in nature as flattened and often twinned crystals and transparent, cleavable masses. It is called selenite. Selenite contains no significant selenium; both substances were named after the ancient Greek word for the Moon. Selenite may also occur in a silky, fibrous form, commonly called “satin spar”. Finally, it may also be granular or quite compact. In hand-sized samples, it can be anywhere from transparent to opaque. 

A fine-grained white or a lightly tinted variety of gypsum, called alabaster. It prizes for ornamental work of various sorts. In arid areas, gypsum can be flower-like, typically opaque, with embedded sand grains called desert roses. It also forms some of the largest crystals found in nature, up to 12 m (39 ft) long, in the form of selenite.


Gypsum is a common mineral with very thick and extensive evaporite beds associated with sedimentary rocks. Gypsum deposition happens under lake and sea water, in hot springs, volcanic vapours, and sulfate solutions in veins. Hydrothermal anhydrite in veins commonly hydrates to gypsum by groundwater in near-surface exposures. It often associates with halite and sulfur minerals, and is the most usual sulfate mineral. Pure gypsum is white in colour, but other substances found as impurities may give various colours to local deposits.

Since gypsum dissolves over time in the water, it is very rare in the sand form. However, the particular properties of White Sands National Park in the United States of New Mexico have created a 710 km square expanse of white gypsum sand. 

Gypsum also form as a byproduct of sulfide oxidation, amidst others by pyrite oxidation, by the reaction of sulfuric acid and calcium carbonate. Its presence shows the oxidizing conditions. Under reducing conditions, the sulfates contains reduce back to sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria. This can lead to the deposition of elemental sulfur in oil-bearing forms, such as salt domes, where it undergoes mining using the Frasch process to produce bulk volume of gypsum from the scrubbers.

Occupational safety

People who exposed to gypsum in the workplace by inhaling it in, making skin contact, and eye contact. Although calcium sulfate is nontoxic and even approved as a food additive, powdered form can irritate the skin and mucous membranes.


Various industrial processes yield synthetic gypsum as a waste product or by-product.


Flue gas desulfurization gypsum, or FGDG, forms at some coal-fired power plants. The primary contaminants come from the limestone used in desulfurization and the coal burned. It is pure enough to replace natural gypsum in various fields, including drywalls, water treatment, and cement set retarders. Improvements in flue gas desulfurization significantly reduce the presence of harmful elements in it.


Gypsum precipitates on salted water membranes, a process known as mineral salt scalings. During brackish water desalination with high concentrations of calcium and sulfate. Scaling decreases membrane life and productivity. This is the main difficulty in brackish water membrane desalination mechanisms like reverse osmosis or nanofiltration. Depending on the water source, other forms of scaling, such as calcite scaling, can also be essential considerations in distillation and heat exchangers. Here, either the solubility of salt or concentration may change promptly.

A new study has proposed that gypsum formation as tiny crystals of a mineral known as bassanite (CaSO4·0.5H2O). This process occurs mainly through three stages:

  1. Nucleation of nanocrystalline bassanite in a homogeneous manner;
  2. self-assembly of bassanite into aggregates, and
  3. conversion of bassanite into gypsum.

Refinery waste

The formation of phosphate fertilizers needs breaking down calcium-containing phosphate rock with acid. It then produces calcium sulfate waste known as phosphogypsum (PG). This form of gypsum is polluted by impurities present in the rock, namely fluoride, silica, radioactive elements (radium), and heavy metal elements like cadmium. Similarly, the manufacturing of titanium dioxide yields titanium gypsum (TG) due to the neutralization of surplus acid with lime. The product is impure with silica, fluorides, organic matter, and alkalis.

In many cases, impurities in refinery gypsum waste have prevented them from being used as regular gypsum in fields like construction. As a result, waste gypsum is collected in stacks , with a significant risk of leaching the impurities into water and soil. To lower the accumulation and to clear out these problem, research is on the way to find more applications for such waste products.

  At Khaitan bio energy various new technologies are used for treating sugars, dewatering, and recycling using energy-efficient techniques, and these technologies are first in use cases in ethanol production. The process is monitored and managed with high-reliable devices and software. As is evident, we extract Gypsum too in addition to silica. This is a major breakthrough in establishing commercial viability for the technology and compete with ethanol produced from other sources.